The percentage of private use of a car for a particular year is the difference between 100 and the percentage of business use. For example, if the percentage of business use is 75%, the percentage of private use is 25%.
Certain requirements must be met in order to ascertain the percentage of business use of a particular car and substantiate that percentage of business use. These include keeping logbook records and odometer records - for more information, see section 7.8.
Private use generally
Private use is any use of your car by an employee or their associate that is not for income-producing purposes of the employee or the associate.
Travel to and from work is normally private use, even if the employee does minor jobs such as picking up mail on the way. There are a few circumstances where travel between home and work may count as work travel. These are outlined below.
Travel while on call
The fact that an employee may travel to and from work in response to a call while on stand-by would not ordinarily alter the character of that travel, that is, it remains private travel.
However, it is different where it can be determined that the employee started duties when they received the call. In this case, the journey from home to the place of employment is undertaken, not to start work, but to complete employment duties already under way before the journey started. Therefore, the travel, including the return trip, would constitute business travel.
For example, a medical practitioner, under the terms of employment with a hospital, is required to be accessible by phone to receive emergency calls and to give immediate treatment instructions before travelling to the hospital. Therefore, their responsibility for treating the patient starts when they receive the call. Although the travel taken in response to an emergency call is considered business travel, regular daily travel undertaken by the employee to and from work, and not in response to an emergency call, is still considered private.
This is different from the situation where an employee on stand-by duty is called on by the employer, but does not actually start duties until after they arrive at the place of employment (for example, a computer technician on stand-by duty who does not start duty until after arriving at the workplace).
Where an employee chooses to perform some of their work at home and, as a consequence, needs to respond to a call to attend to particular duties at the office or other usual workplace, travel to and from the office or other usual workplace is private.
Business trip on way to or from work
Where an employee is required in their ordinary course of duties to visit clients or customers, and the travel is from their usual place of employment, it is business travel.
Where an employee travels from home to the premises of a client or customer, the travel is accepted as business travel where:
- the employee has a regular place of employment to which they habitually travel
- in performing their duties as an employee, they travel to an alternative destination that is not a regular place of employment (for example, a plant operator who ordinarily travels directly to the job site rather than first calling at the depot)
- the journey is to a location at which the employee performs substantial duties (for example, if an architect calls at a building site to check on plans on the way to the office where they are employed, this would be considered business travel).
Employment duties of an itinerant nature
Travel from an employee's home may be considered business travel where the nature of the office or employment is itinerant. Examples include commercial travellers and government inspectors whose homes are a base of operations, from which they travel to one of a number of locations throughout the day, over a continuing period.
Commonly, in these cases the employee works at the employer's office periodically (for example, once a week) to complete or file reports, pick up supplies or organise future trips. Travel between home and the office made in these limited circumstances is accepted as an ordinary incident of the business travel and, as such, is also treated as business travel.
The following characteristics are indicators of an itinerant worker:
- travel is a fundamental part of the employee's work
- the existence of a web of workplaces in the employee's regular employment - that is, the employee has no fixed place of work
- the employee continually travels from one work site to another (an employee must regularly work at more than one work site before returning to their usual place of residence).
Travel between places of employment or business
Travel directly between two places of employment, two places of business or a place of employment and place of business is generally accepted as business travel where the person does not live at either of the places and they travel to engage in income-producing activities.