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1 CY2012 simple average across OECD members excluding Australia. No data available for Japan, Greece and Poland. Corporate tax on profit and capital gains to total tax based off OECD Revenue Statistics, Link. Values from this series for Australia differ from Tax Stats because of conceptual and timing differences. For more information on OECD revenue statistics see, OECD, Revenue Statistics 2013.

2 This increase may be skewed upwards as a number of companies were misclassified during the early 2000s

3 These items refer to tax depreciation on significant capital investments, the offshore banking unit regime and non-assessable non-exempt income items such as 23AH branch, 23AI controlled foreign corporation and 23AJ dividend income.

4 Sum of ABS figures for trade in:

(a) material goods entering (imports) or leaving (exports) Australia, excluding international trade in non-monetary gold and coins, and government goods and services

(b) services rendered by Australian residents to non-residents (credits) and by non-residents to residents (debits).

5 International related party royalty expenses have increased as a share of total royalty expenses paid overseas using data from company income tax return and associated schedules.

6 International related party debt is far greater than foreign direct debt investment in Australia because the former is a construct of tax law and accounting principles while the latter is a construct of the National Accounts. Differences exist in the treatments of debt like hybrid instruments and the treatment of loans between related party financial institutions. Other differences are explained in OECD, Foreign Direct Investment for Development, 2002, Link

7 Country comparisons are made on a weighted average basis to be more representative of the larger economies in the group.

8. In TY2012, the aggregated company income tax return data for royalty expenses paid overseas were $6.4 billion while total international related party royalty expenses and licence fees were $6.2 billion

9 For more information on balancing periods see the World Bank Help Desk Link; World Bank, World Development Indicators, Primary data documentation notes, 2013, Link; ATO, Taxation Statistics, Frequently Asked Questions,

10 For more information on the difference between tax and financial years see - ATO, PS LA 2007/21 Substituted Accounting Periods (SAPs), Link

    Last modified: 13 Jan 2015QC 43707