• ## Calculating pool events

The following steps show what you need to do when using a small business pool:

### Step 1: Work out your opening balance

If you've been using the simplified depreciation rules, the opening balance of your small business pool for the current year is the closing balance from the previous year.

For the year in which you first start using these rules you need to work out the opening balance of the small business pool. To do this you need to work out:

• the value of your assets (adjustable value) – that is, the cost of each asset (excluding any GST paid if you're registered for GST), including improvements, less how much it has depreciated since you first started using it, regardless of whether the use was private or business or other taxable purpose
• the proportion used to earn assessable income (taxable purpose proportion) – that is, the estimated percentage of use of the asset in earning assessable income (as against private use).

For each asset, the amount you include in the small business pool is:

Adjustable value × taxable purpose proportion

Example 11: Calculating the opening balance

Before using the simplified depreciation rules, Fiona holds the following depreciating assets that she uses in her business in 2014. All of these need to be placed into her small business pool. She calculates the amount to include as follows:

• a station wagon with an opening adjustable value of \$38,000 (which Fiona estimates she uses 70% of the time in her business), for which she calculates the amount to include in the pool as \$38,000 × 70% = \$26,600
• a computer with an opening adjustable value of \$3,000 (which Fiona estimates she uses 70% of the time in her business), for which she calculates the amount to include in the pool as \$3,000 × 70% = \$2,100
• a refrigerated cabinet with an opening adjustable value of \$1,500 (which Fiona uses solely for the business), for which she calculates the amount to include in the pool as \$1,500 × 100% = \$1,500.

These assets are allocated to the small business pool, with an opening balance of \$30,200.

As they are depreciating assets used in the business in a previous income year, they are included in the opening pool balance and depreciated at a rate of 30% of the taxable purpose proportion of their adjustable value.

End of example

### Step 2: New assets and cost additions

Your next step is to add any new or second hand assets you acquired during the current income year at a cost equal to or above the instant asset write-off threshold and any cost addition amounts to existing assets.

• amounts you've spent on improving the assets
• the improvement amounts added to the pool need to have the same taxable purpose proportion applied as that applied to the asset
• if you made the improvements to the asset in the same income year that you acquired it, the amount simply becomes part of the original cost of the asset
• improvement costs that are under the instant asset write-off threshold are immediately written-off where they apply to an asset that had been written-off in a previous year, with any further improvements in later years placed into the small business pool
• costs incurred when disposing of, or permanently ceasing to use, an asset (including advertising and commission costs or the costs of demolishing the asset).

You purchased a car for \$15,000 that you estimate is used 50% in your business in the last income year and claimed \$7,500 as an instant asset write-off deduction.

This year you added a tow ball to the car for \$300 so you can use a trailer to move around stock in your business. You instantly write-off the tow ball as it falls under the instant asset write-off threshold, but you can only claim \$150 (50%), as the claim is limited to the proportion of the original asset that is used in earning assessable income.

End of example

### Step 3: Asset sales and disposals

If you've sold or ceased to use an asset in the current income year, you need to reduce your pool balance by the asset's termination value multiplied by the taxable use proportion.

The termination value could be money you received from selling an asset (including by way of trade-in), or the insurance payout you received as the result of its loss or destruction.

If you used the asset 100% for business, reduce the pool balance by the whole termination value.

If the asset had a portion of private use, reduce the pool balance using the following formula:

• Termination value × Taxable purpose proportion

If the value of the small business pool is less than the instant asset write-off threshold after you've made adjustments for any acquisitions, sales or disposals and before calculating any depreciation deductions for the pool as a whole, the whole small business pool balance must be written-off in that year.

If you're transferring assets to another entity as part of a business restructure, you may be entitled to rollover relief, under which you don't subtract the termination values of the depreciating assets from the closing balance of the small business pool.

If you've sold or disposed of an asset, you may also need to include an amount in your assessable income to allow for any excess between what you receive for the asset over what you've claimed as a depreciation deduction – as follows:

• If you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset that has previously been fully written off by instant asset write-off, you also need to include its termination value multiplied by its taxable purpose proportion in your assessable income.
• If you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset that formed part of a low pool value that has been previously written-off, you need to subtract the taxable purpose proportion of the asset's termination value in calculating the closing pool balance. If the balance (after acquisitions, cost additions and this adjustment) results in a negative amount, this amount must be included in your assessable income, and the pool's closing balance becomes zero.
• If you sell or otherwise dispose of an asset that has not been fully written-off, you subtract the taxable purpose proportion of the proceeds of the disposal from the pool balance, and if the result after acquisitions and cost additions is
• equal to or more than the instant asset write-off threshold, the amount is the pool's closing balance
• less than the instant asset write-off threshold but more than zero, the amount is claimed as a deduction and the closing balance becomes zero
• negative, the amount less than zero is included in your assessable income.

You don't incur a capital gains liability for the disposal of a depreciating asset that you've depreciated under the simplified depreciation rules.

Example 13: Disposing assets

During the 2016–17 income year, Fiona disposes of the following assets:

• Her old refrigerated cabinet, sold for \$1,000 on 1 April 2017 with the full amount included in her small business pool as this asset was used solely in her business.
• Her station wagon, traded in for \$10,000 on a new delivery van on 1 May 2017 – the station wagon was used 70% for business purposes, so the formula she uses is the termination value by the taxable purpose proportion (\$10,000 × 70% = \$7,000).

Fiona must reduce the closing pool balance for the 2016–17 income year by \$8,000 as a result of the sale of these assets.

End of example

#### Asset disposal where business use has changed

If you dispose of an asset and there has been a change in how much it was used in your business during the time it was in your small business pool, you must also adjust the taxable purpose proportion of the asset's termination value. You work out the average proportion (taxable purpose proportion) you used the asset in your business during the income years in which the asset was in the pool.

Example 14: Adjusting the value of a disposed asset

Maria added her car to the pool in 2014–15 and used it 60% for business. She increased her business use of her car from 75% to 90% in the 2016–17 income year. She sold her car for \$3,000 at the start of the 2017–18 income year.

Maria must average the estimate of her business use of the car for the year in which it was allocated to the pool and the next three years, as follows:

• 60% (2014–15 original estimate) business use
• 75% (2015–16 estimate) business use
• 90% (2016–17 estimate) business use
• 90% (2017–18, no change from previous year) business use.

The average for business use is 79% = (60% + 75% + 90% + 90%) ÷ 4.

The taxable purpose proportion of the car's termination value is the termination value by the average business use:

• \$3,000 × 79% = \$2,370.

Maria reduces the closing pool balance for the disposal of the car by \$2,370.

End of example

### Step 4: Work out your deduction

If the balance of the pool before calculating your deduction for the year is below the instant asset write-off threshold, the pool is written-off (see Step 3: Asset sales and disposals).

If not, your deduction for simplified depreciation may include amounts for the following:

#### Existing assets

After calculating your opening pool balance in step one, work out your pool deduction using the following formula:

• Opening pool balance × 30% (pool rate)

#### Newly acquired pooled assets (including second-hand assets)

Assets that have been acquired during the year and added to the small business pool are depreciated at 15%. This applies regardless of when during the year you acquired the asset.

Work out the deduction as:

• Taxable purpose proportion × Adjustable value × 15%

Note: Assets that fall under the threshold and are immediately written-off don't form part of your small business pool.

Example 15: Calculating pool deductions

During the period from 1 December 2014 to 12 May 2015 when the instant asset write-off threshold was \$1,000 Fiona acquires the following assets:

• a photocopier/fax, acquired in December 2014, which she estimates was used 90% of the time in her business, so the value is calculated as \$7,700 × 90% = \$6,930
• a new refrigerated cabinet to replace the old one, acquired on 1 April 2015 at a cost of \$9,000, to be used exclusively in the business, so the value is calculated as \$9,000 × 100% = \$9,000
• a delivery van, acquired on 1 May 2015 at a cost of \$20,000, which she estimates will be used 70% of the time in her business, so the value is calculated as \$20,000 × 70% = \$14,000.
Newly acquired first assets

Asset

Photocopier/fax

7,700

90

6,930

New refrigerated cabinet

9,000

100

9,000

Delivery van

20,000

70

14,000

Total of pooled assets added during the year

N/A

N/A

\$29,930

If Fiona acquires and starts to use the above assets in the 2016–17 or 2017–18 income years, or between 1 July 2018 and 28 January 2019 when the instant asset threshold increased to \$20,000, the business use portion of the:

• photocopier/fax and refrigerator are immediately written off
• van is moved to the small business pool.

If Fiona acquires and starts to use the above assets from 29 January 2019, when the instant asset threshold increased to \$25,000, then all of the business use portion of assets can be immediately written off.

End of example

If you made improvements to an asset allocated to your small business pool in an earlier income year, or you have costs associated with the disposal of an asset (see Step 3: Asset sales and disposals) you:

• apply the taxable purpose proportion of the existing asset to the improvement or disposal cost
• deduct the cost of improving the asset in the year the improvement is made, at the rate of 15%.

### Step 5: Work out the closing pool balance

The closing pool balance takes into account any:

• pooled assets you installed or first used during the year
• pooled assets you disposed of during the year
• improvements you made, or cost addition amounts you incurred, in the current year to assets you held or installed ready to use in an earlier year
• deductions allowed for pooled assets.

Use the following worksheet to work out the closing pool balance at the end of each income year. The calculations will also need to take into account the taxable purpose proportion of the assets.

Closing pool balance worksheet

Worksheet item

Value  (\$)

Indicator

Opening pool balance for the year

\$–

A

Plus

Adjustable value of new assets that you first used, or installed ready to use, during the year (not including assets immediately written-off)

\$–

B

Plus

Any cost addition amounts including improvements you made to assets in the pool during the year

\$–

C

Less

Taxable purpose proportion of the termination value of any pooled assets you disposed of (including assets that were sold) during the year

\$–

D

Subtotal (A + B + C − D)

\$–

E

Less

Deduction allowed for assets you held at the start of the year

\$–

F

Less

Deduction allowed for new assets you first used during the year

\$–

G

Less

Deduction allowed for cost addition amounts including improvements you made to the pooled assets during the year

\$–

H

Closing pool balance for the year (E − F − G − H)

\$–

Nil

Example 16: Calculating closing pool balance

Fiona works out her closing pool balance for the year as follows:

Worksheet item

Value  (\$)

Indicator

Opening pool balance for the year

\$30,200

A

Plus

Newly acquired pooled assets. This does not include assets immediately written-off

\$29,930

B

Plus

\$350

C

Less

Disposals

\$8,000

D

Subtotal (A + B + C − D)

\$52,480

E

Less

Deduction for pooled assets opening balance

\$9,060

F

Less

Deduction allowed for pooled assets you first used during the year

\$4,490

G

Less

\$53

H

Closing pool balance for the year (E – F – G – H)

\$38,877

Nil

End of example

#### Opening pool balance

The opening pool balance for an income year is the closing pool balance from the previous income year, except where you either:

• changed the extent you use a pooled asset in your business
• have assets that you started to use, or hold ready to use, since last choosing to use these rules.

The adjustment will ensure that your pool deduction is based on the correct estimate of the value of all your assets and the taxable use proportion.