• Notes

    1 Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Population characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Canberra.

    2 Australia, Parliament 2008, Open for business: developing Indigenous enterprises in Australia, Canberra.

    3 Foley, D & Hunter B, 2008, Developing Indigenous enterprises: the road to economic independence, Submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry, Canberra.

    4 D'Ascenzo, M 2007, Helping small business get on with business, Speech at the Council of Small Business Associations of Australia (COSBOA) National Summit, Hilton Sydney, Sydney, 3 July 2007.

    5 Australian Taxation Office 2007, Reconciliation action plan, Canberra.

    6 This is the standard definition of a small business used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (Characteristics of Small Business Operators 2008, viewed 8 January 2009 http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/DOSSbyTopic/6842F95F5722DAE4CA256D0200821236?OpenDocument).

    7 An Indigenous Australian is defined as a person who:

    • is of Indigenous Australian descent
    • identifies as an Indigenous Australian and
    • is accepted as such by the Indigenous community in which they live.

    This tri-part definition has been upheld by the High Court of Australia (Commonwealth v Tasmania 1983 and confirmed in Gibbs v Capewell 1995) (Foley D, An examination of Indigenous Australian entrepreneurship, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. 2003, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 134.).

    8 Generally, business studies use 51 percent as the benchmark for defining ownership. However, numerous Indigenous businesses involve mixed marriages. 50% ownership is accepted if the owners' children identify as being Indigenous and/or the partner supported Indigenous issues (Foley D, 2006 Indigenous Australian entrepreneurs: Not all community organisations, not all in the Outback, Discussion paper no. 279, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, p 9).

    9 Foley 2006, p.1.

    10 The figures were 3232 in 1991 and 2546 in 1996. The fluctuation in the numbers was largely a result of variation in methodology. The census question from 1991, 1996 and 2001 was asked in a different way.

    11 Foley, 2003, p.134.

    12 Hunter, BH 2004, Indigenous Australians in the contemporary labour market 2001, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, pp. 105-107. His analysis is based on the 2001 census. There is no comparable analysis for the 2006 census.

    13 Hunter 2004.

    14 Hunter 2004, p.97.

    15 Australia, Parliament 2008.

    16 Foley 2006, p. 9.

    17 Hunter 1999.

    18 Foley 2006, p, 10.

    19 Australia, Parliament 2008, p. 10.

    20 Australia, Parliament 2008, p. 11.

    21 Interviewee PC.

    22 Foley 2006.

    23 Anderson, Robert B , Entrepreneurship and Aboriginal Canadians: A case study in economic development, Journal of development entrepreneurship, 2002, vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 45-65, p. 52.

    24 Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social survey 2002, Canberra.

    25 Also referred to as 'non-school' qualification and is awarded for post-school educational attainment. Includes Certificates, Diplomas, Bachelor degrees, Graduate certificates, Graduate Diplomas and Postgraduate degrees. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications. (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004).

    26 Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2006, viewed 27 March 2008, http://www.abc.net.au//catapult/indepth/s1745154.htmExternal Link.

    27 Schagen, S & Lines, A 1996, Financial literacy in adult life, National Foundation for Education Research, Berkshire in Worthington, A 2006, Predicting financial literacy in Australia, Financial Services Review 15 (1): 59-59.

    28 Westbury, N 2000, What's in it for Koories? Barwon Darling Alliance Credit Union and the delivery of financial and banking services in north-west New South Wales, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Working Paper 7, The Australian National University, Canberra.

    29 Australia and New Zealand Banking Group 2008, ANZ Survey of adult financial literacy in Australia, Australia, p. 2. The result is based on a relatively small number of interviews (54) and should be treated with caution.

    30 See also Australia, Parliament 2008, p. 14.

    31 National Indigenous Money Management Agenda 2007, Banking for the future, Reconciliation Australia, Canberra, p. 25.

    32 Hunter, 1999, p. 11.

    33 Hunter 1999; Flamsteed, K & Golding, B 2005, Learning through Indigenous business, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, South Australia, p. 72.

    34 Foley 2006, p 18.

    35 Anderson 2002, p. 52.

    36 Indigenous Business Australia 2008, Annual report 2007-2008, Canberra.

    37 Foley 2006, pp. 19-20

    38 Flamsteed & Golding 2005, p. 46. Koori refers to an Aborigine of southern NSW and Victoria (The Macquarie Dictionary 2001 version 5.0.0, CD-ROM, Macquarie Library, Dee Why, NSW).

    39 Interviewee DF.

    40 Foley 2006, p. 15.

    41 See for example V Limlingan 1986, The Overseas Chinese in ASEAN: Business strategies and management practices, Vita Publishing Corporation, Manila.

    42 Interviewee DF; see also Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia 2008, p. 16.

    43 Interviewee DF.

    44 Interviewee PS.

    45 Foley & Hunter 2008, p. 13.

    46 Wone, Kevin 2005, viewed 14 May 2009

    47 Schwab, R 1995, The calculus of reciprocity: principles and implications of Aboriginal sharing, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper 100, The Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 4, 13.

    48 Schwab 1995, p. 9.

    49The Macquarie Dictionary 2001.

    50 Interviewee DF.

    51 Interviewee RCS.

    52 Interviewees PC, CL.

    53 Interviewee RCS.

    54 Interviewee DF.

    55 Interviewee CL.

    56 Interviewee RCS.

    57 Interviewee PC.

    58 In Flamsteed & Golding 2005, p. 45.

    59 Indigenous Business Australia 2007, Annual report 2006-2007, Canberra.

    60 IBA 2007, p. 42.

    61 Business Victoria 2009, viewed 4 April 2009.

    62 We have found some useful case studies of successful businesses at: Australian Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations 2005, viewed 22 December 2008.

    63 Foley & Hunter 2008, p. 5.

    64 Stanley, O 2002, The potential use of tax incentives for Indigenous businesses on Indigenous land, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Working Paper no. 17, The Australian National University, Canberra in Foley & Hunter 2008.

      Last modified: 18 Nov 2009QC 22397