• 3 Financial accounts

    Under the AEOI regimes, RFIs are required to review the Financial Accounts they maintain to see if any of those accounts need to be reported to the ATO. In general, a Financial Account is an account maintained by a Financial Institution.

    The term ‘Financial Account’ includes five categories of accounts: Depository Accounts, Custodial Accounts, equity and debt interests, Cash Value Insurance Contracts and Annuity Contracts. The following table shows which Financial Institutions are considered to maintain each type of Financial Account.

    Accounts

    Financial Institution is generally considered to maintain them

    Depository Accounts

    The Financial Institution obligated to make payments with respect to the account (excluding an agent of a Financial Institution)

    Custodial Accounts

    The Financial Institution that holds custody over the assets in the account

    Equity and debt interest in certain Investment Entities

    The equity or debt interest in a Financial Institution is maintained by that Financial Institution

    Cash Value Insurance Contracts

    The Financial Institution obligated to make payments with respect to the contract

    Annuity Contracts

    The Financial Institution obligated to make payments for the contract

    The categories of Financial Accounts subject to review under the AEOI regimes are discussed in the following sections.

    Some types of accounts are excluded from being Financial Accounts and so are not subject to the due diligence and reporting obligations. Under the CRS these are called Excluded Accounts. The concept is substantially the same for FATCA. For convenience this guidance uses the same term for accounts excluded from the meaning of Financial Account under FATCA (see section 3.9 for an explanation of Excluded Accounts).

    An Account Holder of a Financial Account may be an individual or an Entity. As noted in section 2, an Entity is a legal person or a legal arrangement. An Entity covers any legal arrangement, whether or not a separate legal entity is created, so it covers companies, associations, joint ventures, partnerships, limited partnerships, and trusts (including unit trusts and discretionary trusts). These types of Entities are the Account Holders of the accounts that they hold. Section 4.4 discusses how to identify an Account Holder of a Financial Account.

    3.1 Depository Accounts

    A Depository Account includes any commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or an account that is evidenced by a certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar instrument maintained by a Financial Institution in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business. It also includes an amount held by an insurance company pursuant to a guaranteed investment contract or similar agreement to pay or credit interest thereon.

    An account evidenced by a passbook would generally be considered a Depository Account. As mentioned in the Commentary, negotiable debt instruments traded on a regulated market or over-the-counter market, distributed and held through financial institutions would not generally be considered Depository Accounts, but Financial Assets.

    3.2 Depository accounts – overpayment of credit or loan facilities

    A credit or revolving credit facility becomes a Depository Account when:

    • a customer makes a payment in excess of a balance due
    • the overpayment is not immediately returned to the customer
    • the account is maintained by a Financial Institution in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business.

    For the meaning of ‘banking or similar business’, see section 2.4 of this guidance. A credit or loan facility in any other circumstances is not a Depository Account.

    An overpayment that is immediately returned does not cause an account to be a Depository Account. For this purpose, ‘immediate’ means the practical time it takes to return the overpayment after recognising an overpayment has occurred.

    These rules apply to facilities whether or not interest is payable on any credit balance for that account. The meaning of 'deposit' means the amount of a payment in excess of the balance due.

    Under the CRS, a Depository Account that exists solely because a customer makes a payment in excess of a balance due for a credit card or other revolving credit facility will qualify as an Excluded Account if the Financial Institution has policies and procedures in place to prevent or refund an overpayment of more than $50,000 within 60 days if it has not reduced in the meantime. Those policies and procedures must be in place from 1 July 2017 (or the date that the entity became a Financial Institution, if later).

    Under FATCA a narrower exclusion applies. A credit card account or revolving credit facility (such as an overdraft) is not required to be reviewed, identified or reported provided that:

    • the account is a New Entity Account, and
    • the Financial Institution has policies and procedures in place to prevent an overpaid account balance exceeding U.S.$50,000.

    The FATCA Agreement does not set a deadline by when the policies and procedures must be implemented. A Financial Institution will qualify for the exclusion from whatever date that it actually implements the policies and procedures. Any credit card account or revolving credit facility that recorded an overpayment from 1 July 2014 and before the implementation of the required policy will be a Depository Account as long as the account remains overpaid. (Note that a Depository Account may still be excluded from review, identification or reporting if, after any necessary aggregation with other Depository Accounts, the balance does not exceed $50,000 at the end of each calendar year).

    For both the CRS and FATCA, it is the general policies and procedures that determine the exclusion. If the Financial Institution generally has a robust implementation of the policies and procedures, an isolated, exceptional and temporary breach of the account balance rules would not disqualify an account from exclusion.

    For both the CRS and FATCA, the account balance threshold must take into account the aggregation rules for other accounts held by the customer with the Financial Institution or a Related Entity.

    Both the CRS and FATCA make provision for Qualified Credit Card Issuers. See section 2.15 for an explanation of how such an entity qualifies as a Non-Reporting Financial Institution.

    For FATCA, a credit or loan facility that has become a Depository Account is subject to the exclusion thresholds in Annex I of the FATCA Agreement if the Reporting AFI has elected to apply the threshold. For example, a credit card account held by an individual who has made an overpayment of $7,000 on the account will not be subject to review, identification or reporting if the Reporting AFI has applied the exclusion for Depository Accounts and their aggregate balance of all Depository Accounts with the Reporting AFI does not exceed $50,000 at the end of the calendar year.

    3.3 Depository accounts – payment cards or pre-loaded cards

    For an account to be a Depository Account, it must be maintained by a Financial Institution in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business. Pre-loaded payment cards, including travel cards, gift cards and pre-loaded payment cards used for online payments, are part of the definition of 'Depository Account'. The entity which issues and maintains the account accessed by the card must be a Financial Institution, it maintains the account in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business and the holder must be designated.

    A store gift card will not be considered a Depository Account if it is only redeemable for value at specified stores. A stored value card will also not be considered a Depository Account if it is purchased with a non-reloadable stored value.

    3.4 Custodial Accounts

    A Custodial Account means an account (other than an Insurance Contract or Annuity Contract) that holds one or more Financial Assets for the benefit of another person.

    The term Financial Asset is intended to encompass any assets that may be held in an account maintained by a Financial Institution, except a non-debt, direct interest in real property. It does not include physical goods.

    Examples of Financial Assets include a security, partnership interest, commodity, swap, Insurance Contract or Annuity Contract, or any interest in a security, partnership interest, commodity, swap, Insurance Contract, or Annuity Contract. Security examples include a share in a corporation; partnership or beneficial ownership interest in a widely held or publicly traded partnership or trust; note, bond, debenture, or other evidence of indebtedness. Swap examples include interest rate swaps, currency swaps, basis swaps, interest rate caps, interest rate floors, commodity swaps, equity swaps, equity index swaps, and similar agreements. Interests include a futures or forward contract or option.

    3.5 Equity or debt interests in investment entities

    Generally any equity or debt interest in an investment entity will constitute a financial account under the CRS. The same general rule also applied under the FATCA Regulations.

    The FATCA Agreement provides a slightly narrower general rule. An equity or debt interest will only be a Financial Account if it is in an entity that is a Financial Institution solely because it is an Investment Entity. Equity or debt interests in an Investment Entity could be excluded under the FATCA Agreement if the entity is also a Financial Institution in another capacity, for example, as a Custodial Institution.

    Both the CRS and FATCA supplement the general rule with an anti-avoidance rule. Equity or debt interests in a financial institution not covered by the general rule explained above may constitute financial accounts where the class of interest was established to avoid reporting under the relevant AEOI regime.

    The CRS provides a special exclusion for equity and debt interests in investment advisers and investment managers. It excludes from the definition of Financial Account any equity or debt interest in an Entity that is an Investment Entity solely because it renders investment advice to, acts on behalf of, or manages portfolios for customers for the purpose of investing, managing, or administering Financial Assets deposited in the name of the customers with other Financial Institutions.

    Unlike the CRS, the FATCA Agreement does not provide a special exclusion for equity and debt interests in investment advisers and investment managers. Instead, relief is provided to investment advisers and investment managers by treating such entities as Non-Reporting AFIs.

    3.6 Equity or debt interests regularly traded on an established securities market under the AEOI regimes

    Under the FATCA Agreement certain equity or debt interests in Investment Entities are specifically excluded from the definition of ‘Financial Account’. This exclusion is not replicated in the CRS.

    The excluded interests under the FATCA Agreement are interests that are 'regularly traded on an established securities market'. However, the exclusion only covers interests held under a ‘depository model’, that is, through a custodial arrangement. The exclusion is based on interests being held through and reported by the RFI maintaining a Custodial Account in which the interests are contained (that is, held by that RFI as an intermediary) and so reporting is ensured.

    Interests held in what is commonly known as 'client name', or under a ‘non-depository model’ do not benefit from the 'regularly traded' exclusion. This is discussed further under 'Investor registered on the books of the Investment Entity'.

    The conditions for an interest to be considered 'regularly traded on an established securities market' are described in the following information. A relevant RFI that issues such interests will not be required to undertake FATCA due diligence and reporting for interests that meet these conditions.

    While the FATCA exclusion may relieve an issuer from reporting on its equity or debt interests, it does not change the obligation of a Custodial Institution to report on Custodial Accounts in which those interests qualifying for the exclusion may be held.

    Under the CRS, there is no similar exclusion from the definition of ‘Financial Account’ for equity or debt interests in Investment Entities regularly traded on an established securities market. Under the CRS, equity or debt interests in Investment Entities (whether or not they are regularly traded on an established securities market) are considered Financial Accounts maintained by the RFI that issues the interests. In practice under the CRS, if interests in an RFI are held through an intermediary that is a Financial Institution, duplicated reporting will generally be avoided. The RFI issuing the interests will identify the intermediary as the Account Holder and will not be required to report it. This is because it is a Financial Institution, unless it is a type B Investment Entity and is not a Participating Jurisdiction Financial Institution, which has Passive NFE status under the CRS and must be documented. See section 2.5 for an explanation of type B Investment Entities.

    In certain circumstances an issuing RFI may not possess information or have a relationship with the Account Holder that would enable it to comply with its reporting obligations. For example, trades of equity interests in an exchange traded fund are made by brokers but the end investors are directly registered in the fund’s interest register, as described above. Both FATCA and the CRS contain provisions allowing the use of third party service providers to assist a Financial Institution to meet its due diligence and reporting obligations in such circumstances.

    Under FATCA and the CRS, the term 'regularly traded on an established securities market' is also relevant for an RFI for determining the status of some of its Entity Account Holders. Under FATCA, an Entity Account Holder that is a U.S. or other corporation, as applicable, whose stock is 'regularly traded on one or more established securities markets' is excluded from the definition of Specified U.S. Person in Article 1.1(ff) of the FATCA Agreement and from the definition of Reportable Person in subparagraph D(2) of section VIII of the CRS (that is, Financial Accounts held by such corporations are not reportable). In addition, an Entity Account Holder whose stock is 'regularly traded on an established securities market' is considered an Active NFFE under subparagraph B(4)(b) of section VI of Annex I and subparagraph D(9)(b) of section VIII of the CRS. Accordingly, Financial Accounts held by such an Active NFFE are not reportable.

    An RFI can rely on a self-certification provided by the Account Holder, or information in its possession or that is publicly available, to determine whether stock in the corporation is regularly traded.

    'Regularly traded on an established securities market' and ‘regularly traded on one or more established securities markets’

    As discussed, these phrases are used for various and separate purposes in the AEOI regimes. They are used interchangeably in the following discussion, which is to provide guidance to RFIs on the meaning of the terms.

    Article 1.1(s) of the FATCA Agreement provides that for the definition of Financial Account, an interest is 'regularly traded' if there is a meaningful volume of trading on a continuous basis. Article 1.1(s) further provides that an 'established securities market' means an exchange that is officially recognised and supervised by a governmental authority in which the market is located and that has a meaningful annual value of shares traded on the exchange.

    RFIs may reasonably determine there is a 'meaningful volume of trading on a continuous basis' of an interest, or that an exchange has a 'meaningful annual value of shares traded' based on historical trading volumes.

    As noted, the terms are also used in the FATCA Agreement’s definitions of Specified U.S. Person and Active NFFE. They can be interpreted in these contexts according to the same principles.

    Under the CRS, for the purposes of subparagraphs D(2)(i) and D(9)(b) of section VIII of the CRS (definitions of Reportable Person and Active NFE, RFIs may make the same reasonable determination. Alternatively, they may use the principles discussed at paragraphs 112-115 of the Commentary on section VIII. RFIs may also use the CRS Commentary to interpret the terms in the context of the FATCA Agreement.

    Alternatively, an RFI can rely on the following to interpret the terms under each of the AEOI regimes. An equity or debt interest is considered to be 'regularly traded on an established securities market' if the interest:

    • is admitted to quotation for trading on a licensed Australian financial market (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) or an approved stock exchange (within the meaning of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (ITAA 1997)
    • is widely held.

    An interest is considered to be widely held if the entity either:

    • satisfies the conditions of paragraph (b) of the definition of 'widely held company' in subsection 995-1(1) of the ITAA 1997 (if the entity is a company)
    • is not closely held within the meaning of paragraphs 272-105(2)(a) and 272-105(2A)(a) of Schedule 2F to the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (if the entity is a trust).

    A qualifying RFI must meet any ongoing requirements prescribed by the operator of the financial market on which the relevant interests are listed and by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) or other relevant government regulator.

    Licensed Australian financial markets include the Australian Securities Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, Chi-X Australia as well as other exchanges licensed by ASIC on which equity or debt interests in relevant Financial Institutions can be traded.

    As a further alternative for FATCA only, RFIs may apply the provisions of the Regulations in determining whether an interest is 'regularly traded on an established securities market'.

    Under FATCA Agreement’s definition of Financial Account an equity or debt interest is treated as a Financial Account where there is evidence of deliberate practices to avoid reporting under the FATCA Agreement or facilitate tax evasion. For instance, if a particular interest or class of interests was issued to avoid reporting under the FATCA Agreement, the interests are reportable Financial Accounts from the moment they were issued.

    Investor registered on the books of the investment entity for the purposes of the FATCA Agreement’s definition of financial account

    While interests that are 'regularly traded on an established securities market' are excluded from the FATCA Agreement’s definition of 'Financial Account', these interests will be treated as Financial Accounts and subject to due diligence and reporting where the holder of the interest in the RFI (other than a Financial Institution acting as an intermediary) is registered on the books of that RFI (see the last sentence of Article 1.1(s)). This generally refers to interests held under what is known as a ‘non-depository model’, which is common in the Australian and certain foreign securities markets.

    This means that an RFI that issues interests held directly by investors on the share registry (instead of in the name of a Financial Institution intermediary) has due diligence and reporting obligations for those interests even if they are 'regularly traded'.

    This safeguard is intended to ensure that reporting always occurs where people hold the interests directly on the books of the Financial Institution (non-depository model) rather than through a Financial Institution such as a custodian or nominee arrangement (depository model). In Australia, investors often hold investments in their own name. In the absence of this safeguard, investors could, contrary to the intent of the FATCA Agreement, avoid reporting for their Financial Account if the relevant interests were not acquired or held through an RFI. For instance, interests could be acquired with the assistance of a non-reporting execution-only broker and be held directly by the investor.

    Transitional arrangements for exchange-traded product issuers

    The U.S. Government has informed the Australian Government that it will recognise these RFIs' compliance if they follow certain procedures during a transitional period lasting until 1 July 2017, before fully implementing the FATCA Agreement's requirements.

    Section 8.1 of this Guidance describes in detail the transitional due diligence and reporting rules that apply to exchange-traded product issuers, and provides a link to the U.S. letter.

    Summary of treatment of equity or debt interests in relevant RFIs under Article 1.1(s) of the FATCA Agreement and the CRS

    FATCA Agreement

    Equity or debt interests in relevant RFIs that are not 'regularly traded on an established securities market' are treated as Financial Accounts and subject to due diligence and reporting requirements under the general FATCA Agreement rules.

    Equity or debt interests in relevant RFIs that are 'regularly traded on an established securities market' and the holders of which (other than a Financial Institution acting as an intermediary) appear registered on the books of the RFI are treated as Financial Accounts only if the interest is first registered on the books on or after 1 July 2014. Transitional due diligence and reporting rules, described in section 8.1 of this Guidance, apply to RFIs that are exchange-traded product issuers until 1 July 2017.

    Equity or debt interests in relevant RFIs that are 'regularly traded on an established securities market' and the holders of which are not registered on the books of the RFI are not treated as Financial Accounts and not subject to due diligence and reporting by the AFI under Annex I.

    CRS

    Equity or debt interests in relevant RFIs are treated as Financial Accounts and are subject to due diligence and reporting requirements under the general CRS rules.

    3.7 Cash value insurance contracts

    A Cash Value Insurance Contract means an Insurance Contract (other than an indemnity reinsurance contract between two insurance companies) that has a Cash Value.

    Cash Value is a defined term in the CRS and in the FATCA Agreement. It means the greater of:

    • the amount that the policyholder is entitled to receive upon surrender or termination of the contract (determined without reduction for any surrender charge or policy loan)
    • the amount the policyholder can borrow under or with regard to the contract.

    Both the CRS and the FATCA Agreement do not include an amount payable under an Insurance Contract:

    • solely by reason of the death of an individual insured under a life insurance contract
    • as a personal injury or sickness benefit or other benefit providing indemnification of an economic loss incurred upon the occurrence of the event insured against
    • as a refund of a previously paid premium (less cost of insurance charges, whether or not actually imposed) under an insurance contract (other than an investment-linked life insurance or annuity contract), due to cancellation or termination of the contract, decrease in risk exposure during the effective period of the contract, or arising from correcting a posting or similar error on the premium for the contract; or
    • a policyholder dividend based upon the underwriting experience of the contract or group involved, except the CRS limits this exclusion to a dividend that relates to an Insurance Contract under which the only benefits payable are as a personal injury or sickness benefit or other benefit providing indemnification of an economic loss incurred upon the occurrence of the event insured against.

    The CRS provides one further exclusion from Cash Value that is not expressly provided by the FATCA Agreement. It excludes a return of an advance premium or premium deposit for an Insurance Contract where the premium is payable at least annually, if the amount of the advance premium or premium deposit does not exceed the next annual premium payable under the contract.

    3.8 Annuity contracts

    An Annuity Contract means a contract under which the issuer agrees to make payments for a period of time determined in whole or in part by reference to the life expectancy of one or more individuals.

    The term also includes arrangements in Australia commonly referred to as annuities, under which the issuer agrees to make payments for a term of years. It will include any annuities described and regulated under the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Regulations 1994.

    3.9 Excluded accounts

    Certain Financial Accounts are seen to be low risk of being used to evade tax and are excluded from review and reporting under the AEOI regimes. Such accounts are specifically excluded from the definition of ‘Financial Account’ and are called ‘Excluded Accounts’.

    The following are Excluded Accounts:

    • retirement and pension accounts – see section 3.10
    • certain escrow accounts – see section 3.11
    • term life insurance contracts – see section 3.12
    • accounts held solely by a deceased estate – see section 3.13
    • employee share schemes and employee share trusts as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997
    • a first home saver account (FHSA) as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997
    • a funeral policy as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997
    • a scholarship plan as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

    The range of Excluded Accounts is generally the same between FATCA and the CRS, but see section 3.2 for a difference relating to overpayment of credit or loan facilities.

    3.10 Retirement and pension accounts

    Certain savings accounts that are retirement or pension accounts are Excluded Accounts. These are:

    • a complying superannuation/FHSA life insurance policy as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997
    • an exempt life insurance policy as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, other than a policy referred to in subparagraphs (e)(i) or (iii) of subsection 320-246(1) of that Act
    • a retirement savings account as defined in the Retirement Savings Accounts Act 1997.

    3.11 Escrow accounts

    Accounts where money is held by one party on behalf of another party(ies) for certain purposes (for example, escrow accounts) can be Excluded Accounts under the AEOI regimes where they are established in connection with any of the following (provided applicable provisions in paragraph D of section V of Annex II to the FATCA Agreement and subparagraph C(17)(e) of section VIII of the CRS are met):

    • a court order or judgment
    • a sale, exchange, or lease of real or personal property, provided certain conditions in the abovementioned provisions are met
    • an obligation of a Financial Institution servicing a loan secured by real property to set aside a portion of a payment, to facilitate payment of taxes or insurance related to the real property at a later time
    • an obligation of a Financial Institution solely to facilitate the payment of taxes at a later time

    Where a Financial Account similar to an Escrow Account is not covered above and the account is held by a non-financial intermediary (such as a solicitor, real estate agent or insurance broker trust account) on behalf of clients, the RFI is only required to undertake the due diligence procedures for the non-financial intermediary provided that:

    • the funds of underlying clients of the non-financial intermediary are held on a pooled basis
    • the only person identified to satisfy AML/KYC requirements relating to the account is the non-financial intermediary.

    Where a non-financial intermediary operates an account with an RFI and the underlying client or clients of the intermediary must be identified by the RFI under AML/KYC requirements as part of the account opening process, the RFI must review the account to identify whether any underlying client is a Reportable Person.

    3.12 Term life insurance contracts and pure risk insurance products

    Life insurance contracts with a coverage period that will end before the insured individual attains age 90 are not Financial Accounts, provided that the contract satisfies the following requirements:

    • periodic premiums, which do not decrease over time, are payable at least annually during the period the contract is in existence or until the insured attains age 90, whichever is shorter
    • the contract has no contract value that any person can access (by withdrawal, loan, or otherwise) without terminating the contract
    • the amount (other than a death benefit) payable upon cancellation or termination of the contract cannot exceed the aggregate premiums paid for the contract, less the sum of mortality, morbidity, and expense charges (whether or not actually imposed) for the period or periods of the contract’s existence and any amounts paid prior to the cancellation or termination of the contract
    • the contract is not held by a transferee for value.

    As explained at section 3.7, an insurance contract that has a Cash Value (other than an indemnity reinsurance contract between two insurance companies) is a Cash Value Insurance Contract and therefore a Financial Account. An insurance contract that does not have a Cash Value is not a Financial Account.

    Pure risk insurance products are not considered to have a Cash Value and so it is unnecessary for the AEOI regimes to specifically exclude them from the definition of Financial Account (that is, as a type of Excluded Account).

    In Australia, pure risk life (and other) insurance products will generally display the following features, which are listed to illustrate the notion of 'pure risk':

    • benefits are paid only on death, terminal illness, disablement or trauma (specified illness or injury)
    • there are no policy loans
    • there are no policyholder dividends (including termination dividends) or other payments
    • there are no surrender charges
    • these products require regular payment of premiums on a 'pay as you go' basis
    • premiums are usually either age-based stepped premiums (low becoming high) or level for the contract duration (no increases); there are also some instances where level premiums switch to being stepped from a certain age
    • they do not have a surrender value, an investment element value or any characteristic resembling a cash value (this is also the case for level premiums)
    • advance payments of premiums may be permitted, but interest is not paid on them
    • the policy expires if the next premium due is not paid or if cancelled by the policyholder
    • if the policyholder cancels the policy, the premium refund relates only to the unexpired period of future cover paid for (for example, cancellation part way through a period for which a premium was paid – other than for 'cooling off' periods, where the full premium is refunded)
    • if the policyholder reduces cover, premium refund relates only to the amount of the reduction to cover for the unexpired period of future cover paid for (for example, reduction to sum insured part way through a period for which a premium was paid)
    • death benefits may not be age limited – the cover may run until a contractually specified expiry age (for example, age 99) or indefinitely as long as premiums continue to be paid
    • disability and trauma benefits are not age limited (other than after age 99, although narrower coverage can apply from earlier ages, such as age 75 or 65) – the cover runs until the contractually specified expiry age of 99 years.

    3.13 Deceased estates

    An account may be held by a deceased estate. Such accounts are not Financial Accounts under the AEOI regimes where:

    • the account is held solely by an estate
    • the RFI is in possession of documentation for the account which includes a copy of the deceased’s will, death certificate or a grant of probate or letters of administration for the deceased and the executor or administrator of the estate
    • in the case of FATCA, the account is maintained in Australia.

    For this purpose, the RFI must treat the account as having the same status that it had prior to the death of the Account Holder until the date it obtains such documentation.

    In cases where a deceased person held a jointly held account and upon death their entitlement automatically transfers to the surviving joint holder or holders, the account would retain its status as a Financial Account and be subject to due diligence and reporting on the joint holders (before the time the RFI receives notification of the deceased’s death) or only for the surviving joint holder (from the time the RFI is notified of such death).

    Where a Reportable Person held a Financial Account at the time of death, there is an account closure for them for AEOI purposes. See section 5.6 for reporting on closed accounts.

    An account of a deceased estate is an Excluded Account regardless residency of the executor or administrator. While acknowledging that the time to administer an estate can vary widely, the exclusion of an account held by a deceased estate is not intended to be indefinite. An RFI may need to refresh its knowledge of the account if the status is not resolved over an unduly long period of time.

    3.14 Dormant accounts

    An RFI may identify an account as a dormant account under applicable laws or regulations or the normal operating procedures of the RFI consistently applied for all accounts maintained by that RFI in Australia. Dormant accounts are not excluded from due diligence procedures or reporting.

    Where the application of the relevant due diligence procedures indicates the account is a Reportable Account, the RFI must report the account whether or not there was contact with the Account Holder.

    3.15 Collateral and derivative arrangements – custodial accounts

    Whether the holding of collateral constitutes a Custodial Account depends on the nature of the collateral and the broader contractual arrangements between the parties. For a Custodial Account to exist it must be an account held for the benefit of another person and the account must hold:

    • a financial instrument or contract held for investment (FATCA), or
    • one or more Financial Assets (CRS).

    Simply being a party to a contract or a financial instrument would not generally create a custodial relationship with the counterparty for the contract or financial instrument. In these circumstances each party acts on its own behalf, subject to the terms of the contract or financial instrument.

    Some financial or derivatives arrangements include the holding of collateral as security for the finance or fulfilment of the derivatives obligation. If the account under which the collateral is held is not an account held for the benefit of another person and the holding of the collateral is a subsidiary and integral element of the overall arrangement between the two parties, it will not be a Custodial Account.

    If collateral is provided on a full title transfer basis so that the collateral taker has full legal and beneficial ownership of the asset, taking or holding the asset does not create a Custodial Account. Whether the beneficial ownership of an asset was transferred depends on weighing the contractual arrangements between the parties.

    An account that is not a Custodial Account may nevertheless be a Financial Account for another reason; for example, an account maintained by an Investment Entity.

    Example 1

    Ozex Ltd ('Ozex') operates a money exchange and remittance business. In addition to spot exchanges, some customers open accounts with Ozex and engage in various derivatives transactions, such as options and forward contracts. Ozex transacts in these derivatives directly with those customers. Ozex also engages in other transactions with banks as part of its hedging strategies, but these are separate to transactions with its customers.

    The derivatives transactions with its customers do not cause the client accounts to be Custodial Accounts. As counterparty to the derivative transactions, Ozex acts on its own behalf and does not have a custodial relationship with the customer for those derivatives.

    Example 2

    Further to the previous example, Ozex has contractual agreements with some customers which require an amount of money to be deposited by the client to cover or mitigate the risk that the client may not follow through with a transaction if exchange rates move unfavourably. Ozex records these deposits in its internal records and pools client funds in an account with an unrelated bank. The holding of these funds is not the holding of a relevant financial instrument or contract (FATCA). Although the holding of money is the holding of Financial Assets for CRS purposes, viewed objectively the holding of the money is subsidiary and integral to the transactions or contracts between Ozex and the customer. The accounts are not Custodial Accounts.

    Example 3

    Interex Ltd ('Interex') conducts a business that trades over-the-counter-derivatives. A counterparty trades with Interex, subject to the standardised contract developed by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA). From time to time collateral is provided or adjusted for transactions under the relevant ISDA Credit Support Annex documentation. Under this Annex, the collateral provided is on a full title transfer basis.

    The financial instruments provided as collateral will not give rise to a Custodial Account because full ownership title to the collateral is legally and beneficially transferred from the client to Interex.

    3.16 Not-for-profits – Financial Accounts

    For a not-for-profit that is an Investment Entity its Financial Accounts are debt or equity interests in the entity.

    Many not-for-profits are set up as trusts. An equity interest in a trust or similar arrangement is held by any person treated as a settlor or beneficiary of all or part of the trust, or by any natural person exercising ultimate effective control over the trust. Donors to an established not-for-profit (such as a charity) would not be treated as holding an equity interest in the trust where the donor has made an irrevocable donation with no control over the donated funds.

    A person is treated as a beneficiary if they have the right to receive, directly or indirectly, a mandatory distribution; or they receive, directly or indirectly, a discretionary distribution from the trust. In the case of discretionary distributions the beneficiary may only be treated as a beneficiary in the calendar year in which they receive a distribution.

    For most not-for-profit trusts their beneficiaries will be the individuals and entities to whom they make grants or other distributions. The purpose of the grant is not relevant, it is the fact of receiving a grant that makes the person a beneficiary. In the case of a grant paid at the trustees’ discretion, the grantee may be treated as beneficiary for only those years they receive a grant.

    An equity interest in a company is held by all shareholders, and all other persons with an interest in the profits or capital of the company.

    For not-for-profits set up as companies, the recipients of grants will not be equity interest holders unless they have an interest in the profits or capital of the company.  Unlike trusts and foundations, the mere receipt of a grant will not make a grantee an equity interest holder.

    Debt interests include all loans made to the not-for-profit entity.

    Once a not-for-profit has identified its debt and equity interest holders it will need to carry out due diligence on them to identify whether any of them are Reportable Persons. Due diligence procedures are explained from section 4 of this guidance.

    4 Due Diligence

    The AEOI due diligence procedures are the procedures an RFI is required to undertake to determine whether there are any Reportable Accounts among the Financial Accounts it maintains.

    For the CRS, the general due diligence procedures that Australian RFIs must comply with are described in sections II to VII of the CRS itself, as interpreted by the CRS Commentary.

    For FATCA, the general due diligence procedures that Australian RFIs must comply with are described in Annex I of the FATCA Agreement.

    The due diligence and reporting requirements of both FATCA and CRS should be read in conjunction with the respective Australian implementing legislation.

    For the CRS, RFIs are required to establish whether a person holding the account is tax resident in any foreign jurisdiction. For FATCA, the RFI must establish whether an account holder is tax resident in the U.S. which, for individuals, also includes determining if they are a citizen of the U.S. irrespective of where they reside.

    In addition, both AEOI regimes have further due diligence obligations for Entity Account Holders.

    An RFI may use third party service providers to carry out some or all of their due diligence. However the RFI ultimately remains responsible for their obligations.

    The details of due diligence requirements depend on whether an account is pre-existing or a new account. An account is pre-existing if it is in existence on 30 June 2017 for the CRS, or was in existence on 30 June 2014 for FATCA. The required due diligence further depends on whether an account holder is an individual or an entity. For accounts held by individuals, there are further distinctions in procedures for Lower Value Accounts and High Value Accounts (CRS and FATCA) or below a threshold (FATCA).

    4.1 AML/KYC procedures

    AML/KYC procedures are an integral part of the due diligence procedures for the AEOI regimes. For some identification tasks an RFI may rely solely on information collected and maintained through properly conducted AML/KYC procedures, for other tasks the review of information must cover the AML/KYC information and any other information held on the client.

    An RFI may rely solely on their AML/KYC procedures when:

    • reasonably determining that an entity is an Active NFE or a Financial Institution (any entity account)
    • identifying the controlling persons of an entity (any entity account, but see section 4.11 of this guidance on procedures relating to settlors of trusts)
    • determining whether the Controlling Person or persons of a Passive NFE holding a Pre-existing Account is a Reportable Person, provided that the balance or value does not exceed $1 million.

    An RFI must review AML/KYC information and any other information held on the client when:

    • confirming the reasonableness of a self-certification for a New Individual Account or a New Entity Account
    • determining whether the holder of a Pre-existing Entity Account may be a Reportable Person.

    4.2 Alternative procedures and elections

    Both the CRS and FATCA allow RFIs to make certain choices in their application of each regime. RFIs are not required to notify the ATO of elections made, but the choice made should be apparent from the records and procedures of the RFI or the carrying out of the RFI's due diligence and reporting obligations.

    For the CRS, alternative procedures for due diligence includes:

    • applying the due diligence procedures for New Accounts to Pre-existing Accounts
    • applying the due diligence procedures for High Value accounts to Lower Value accounts
    • excluding Pre-existing Entity Accounts with an aggregate value or balance of $250,000 or less
    • treating certain new accounts as Pre-existing Accounts (see section 4.3).

    4.3 New account treated as a pre-existing account – the CRS

    Under the CRS, a Financial Account is classified either as a Pre-existing Account or New Account depending on the date of opening; that is, whether it is opened on or after 1 July 2017 or whether the account was already in existence prior to that date. Certain New Accounts may be treated as Pre-existing Accounts, subject to four conditions. The conditions are:

    • the Account Holder also holds with the RFI (or with a Related Entity in Australia) a Financial Account that is a Pre-existing Account;
    • the RFI (and any Related Entity) treats both accounts, and any other Financial Accounts of the Account Holder that are treated as Pre-existing Accounts, as a single Financial Account for purposes of satisfying the standards of knowledge requirements and determining the balance or value of any of the Financial Accounts when applying any account thresholds
    • for a Financial Account that is subject to AML/KYC procedures, the Reporting Financial Institution is permitted to satisfy such AML/KYC procedures for the Financial Account by relying upon the AML/KYC procedures performed for the Pre-existing Account
    • opening the Financial Account does not require the Account Holder to provide new, additional or amended customer information other than for purposes of the CRS.

    Treatment of the accounts as a single account

    The second condition above requires an RFI to have internal practices that treat the customer and their accounts holistically in relation to being aware of information that may cause a reasonably prudent person to question Documentary Evidence, self-certifications, or a claim being made by the customer. In order to satisfy this condition the RFI must do two things.

    1. Apply standards of knowledge for the correctness or reliability of Documentary Evidence or self-certifications from that Account Holder as if the pre-existing Account or accounts already held by the customer, and the New Account being opened, are a single account. If the RFI has reason to know that the status assigned to one of the accounts is inaccurate, then it has reason to know that the status assigned to all other accounts of the Account Holder is inaccurate.
    2. Treat the Financial Account or accounts already held by the customer, and the New Account being opened, as a single account for the purposes of applying any of the account thresholds. For example, where there is a Pre-existing Individual Account and a New Individual Account being opened, the RFI's internal policies and procedures must account for the year-end account balances of both accounts when monitoring whether those aggregated accounts exceed $1 million at the end of that year and future years. If it exceeds $1 million it will trigger the High Value Account due diligence procedures. The RFI's policies and procedures would also need to take into account in this aggregation the knowledge that any relationship managers (of an account) possess for financial accounts held with the RFI or with a Related Entity.

    New, additional or amended customer information

    Customer information refers to information on the identity, characteristics or profile of the customer as a person or entity. It does not cover the nature or characteristics of the account or investment; for example, altering the mix of investments within an account. On its own, the act of accepting terms and conditions for the account or authorising a credit check is not the provision of customer information.

    An option to provide new, additional or amended customer information at the time of opening the new account does not cause the fourth condition to be failed, as the option to do so is not a requirement. For example, the ability for the customer to update their address when opening a new account does not reach the threshold of being a requirement.

    A requirement to confirm existing information as remaining current is also not a requirement to provide new, additional or amended information.

    A requirement to provide new, additional or amended customer information refers to a requirement for the Account Holder to provide the information to the RFI. It would not cover a requirement to provide information to another person. For example, where a customer is considering entering into a wealth-related product, their adviser may need to conduct or confirm a needs analysis and issue a statement of advice. If the adviser is unrelated to the RFI that will issue the new in scope account (additional to an existing account with that customer), it does not cause the fourth condition to be failed.

    As a general guide and without altering the principles described above, passive actions (or inaction) by or with a customer are to be contrasted with occasions of active engagement between the customer and the RFI. The latter is more likely to present an opportunity to seek and obtain a self-certification or other information needed for complying with the CRS.

    It is noted that a customer treated as a pre-existing customer may be subject to KYC refresh under AML obligations and change of circumstances due diligence under the AEOI regimes.

    Example 1: A rolled over term deposit account

    An individual holds a pre-existing term deposit which matures on 1st November that year. Shortly before that date, the FI contacts the customer to confirm instructions: whether the account is to be rolled over in accordance with standing instructions to a default rate, rolled over into a different term; or closed and redeemed. The customer may allow the default instructions to proceed, or may telephone or write with other instructions. Updated terms and conditions may apply, and applicable rates will be disclosed. The rolled over account is a new term deposit account, but this routine creation of the new account does not require the provision of new, additional or amended customer information.

    Example 2: A change in investments for a portfolio investment product

    An account holder holds a number of investment accounts that are marketed as a single portfolio product. The account holder decides to change the mix of investments due to a change in investment strategy. The customer goes online and makes the changes. As a consequence of those instructions, a number of investment accounts are closed, and some new ones are opened. During the online process, the customer is asked to confirm that their contact information has not changed. For CRS purposes there is not a relevant requirement for the provision of new, additional or amended customer information.

    Example 3: An existing deposit account holder applies for a credit card, which has an in-scope linked insurance product

    As part of the account opening process, the applicant for the credit card (which is an out-of-scope account for AEOI purposes) is asked to provide information about their credit status – their employment, income and outgoings. The card is a 'packaged' product, and the customer also becomes the insured under a linked insurance product. This is a relevant requirement to provide new, additional or amended customer information and the insurance product account would not be eligible for treatment as a Pre-existing Account (rather, it is treated as a New Account).

    Example 4: An entity that holds a term deposit account applies for a money market deposit account

    As part of the account opening process, the entity is asked to confirm that none of their information has changed. On its own, this is not a relevant requirement for the provision of new, additional or amended customer information.

    In contrast, if the account opening procedures of the RFI required that the customer is asked for confirmation of source of funds for the account, this is a relevant requirement for the provision of new, additional or amended customer information.

    Example 5: Individual signatory not an account holder (CRS)

    A fully AML identified and verified individual, who is not an account holder on 30 June 2017, but is a signatory on another account, subsequently applies to open a deposit account in their own name.

    This individual may be ‘product ready’ as recorded in the RFI’s system and substantially able to open an account as if they were an existing customer. However, for AEOI purposes the individual does not hold a Pre-existing Account as they are not personally the holder of a Financial Account on the required date. The newly opened account is a New Individual Account for CRS purposes and a self-certification is required.

    Example 6: Individual closing an account and later opening a new one (CRS)

    An individual, who had an in scope account and was fully AML identified and verified, closed their account in March 2017 and so is not an account holder on 30 June 2017. Subsequently in December 2017 they apply to open a deposit account.

    For CRS purposes the individual does not hold a Pre-existing Account on the required date. The newly opened account is a New Individual Account for CRS purposes and a self-certification is required. Note: if the earlier account was not closed, but instead was classified by the RFI as dormant, it will qualify as a Pre-existing Account.

    Example 7: Individual opening a mortgage offset account (CRS):

    An individual has a home loan from an RFI but no other account on 30 June 2017. In February 2018 they apply to open a mortgage offset account (a Depository Account).

    A home loan account is an out-of-scope account and so for CRS purposes the individual does not hold a Pre-existing Account on the required date. The newly opened Depository Account is a New Individual Account for CRS purposes and a self-certification is required.

    End of example

    Joint account holders opening a new account

    Where a New Account is opened with an RFI and one of the Account Holders has a Pre-existing Account and the other does not, the RFI may treat the New Account as a Pre-existing Account for the Pre-existing Account holder. In this situation, the RFI may carry out due diligence on the Account Holder of the Pre-existing Account in line with the Pre-existing Account due diligence procedures. For the joint holder who is a new customer and does not hold a Pre-existing account, the RFI must carry out New Account due diligence on that person as a new Account Holder.

    4.4 Identifying the account holder of a financial account

    The due diligence procedures in the AEOI regimes are generally aimed at determining whether the Account Holder is a Reportable Person, or has a Controlling Person who is a Reportable Person in the case of Passive NFEs, so that the RFI can report the respective accounts to the ATO as a Reportable Account.

    Accordingly, identifying the Account Holder is a key requirement of the due diligence procedures. In most cases, identifying the holder of a Financial Account is straightforward and the Account Holder is the person listed or identified by the RFI who maintains the account as the holder of the account.

    However, RFIs must consider the type of account and the capacity in which it is held. 'Account Holder' is defined in the AEOI regimes such that where a person, other than a Financial Institution, holds a Financial Account for the benefit or account of another person as an agent, custodian, nominee, signatory, investment adviser or intermediary, then that other person is the Account Holder.

    An RFI may rely on information in its possession (including information collected in line with AML/KYC procedures), based on which it can reasonably determine if a person is acting for the benefit or account of another person.

    An Account Holder of a Financial Account may be an individual or an Entity. As noted in section 2, an Entity is a legal person or a legal arrangement. An Entity covers any legal arrangement, whether or not a separate legal entity is created, so covers companies, associations, joint ventures, partnerships, limited partnerships, and trusts (including unit trusts and discretionary trusts). These types of Entities are the Account Holders of the accounts that they hold.

    Accounts held by trusts, estates, partnerships and other legal arrangements treated as entity accounts

    The Account Holder is the person listed or identified as the holder of a Financial Account by the financial institution maintaining the account, regardless of whether such person is a flow-through entity. If a trust, estate or partnership is listed or identified as the holder of a Financial Account, the trust, estate or partnership is treated as the Account Holder rather than any owner, beneficiary, partner or otherwise). This does not remove the requirement to identify the Controlling Persons of the trust, estate or partnership where the entity is a Passive NFE/NFFE.

    A trust that is identified by an RFI as holding a Financial Account is treated as the Account Holder even if, as a matter of law, it is the trust's trustee that appears listed or recorded as the holder of the Financial Account in the AFI's systems.

    Example – trust, not trustee, is the account holder

    'Trustee XYZ Ltd ATF the John & Mary Family Trust': the Trust, not the corporate trustee, is treated as the Account Holder for AEOI purposes.

    End of example

    Joint accounts

    Where an account is jointly held, each of the joint holders is an Account Holder. An account is reportable if any Account Holder is a Reportable Person (under the CRS), a Specified U.S. Person (under FATCA) or a Passive NFE with one or more Controlling Persons who is a Reportable Person or Specified U.S. Person. The balance or value of the account is to be attributed in full to each Account Holder and this applies for both aggregation and reporting purposes. Where an account is jointly held by an individual and an entity, AFIs will need to apply both the individual and entity due diligence requirements to the account.

    Children's accounts

    Some Financial Institutions have account products specifically designed for children, where the child may transact on the account, perhaps in a limited way or after reaching a certain age. If a parent or grandparent (or similar figure) opens a children's account in the child's name, the child is the Account Holder, even if there is no trust deed or other formal arrangement. Any necessary self-certification may be done by a person with legal capacity to sign on behalf of the child.

    RFIs may rely on information collected on children's accounts (for example, collected from a parent) in line with current AML/KYC procedures to apply AEOI due diligence procedures to assess if the child is reportable or to confirm the reasonableness of a self-certification. An RFI does not have reason to know that a child is the Account Holder if, in applying the AEOI and AML/KYC due diligence procedures, there is no indication to that effect.

    4.5 Due diligence – pre-existing individual accounts, lower value accounts

    A Lower Value Account for CRS purposes is an individual account with an aggregate balance or value that does not exceed $1 million on 30 June 2017. It will remain a Lower Value Account as long as the balance or value does not exceed $1 million on 31 December 2017 and 31 December of subsequent years.

    An RFI can apply either:

    • a residence address test (provided conditions are met – see below) or
    • an electronic record search.

    An RFI can apply the residence address test to all Lower Value Accounts or, separately to any clearly identified group of accounts such as those maintained by a particular business line of the RFI, or in a particular location by the RFI.

    FATCA also includes the concept of Lower Value Accounts. Due diligence on those Lower Value Accounts was required through electronic record search and was required to have been completed by 30 June 2016.

    The remainder of this section focuses on CRS procedures only.

    Residence address test

    The due diligence requirements for a Pre-existing Individual account allow for a residence address test procedure for a Lower Value Account (an account with an aggregate account balance or value as of 30 June 2017 that does not exceed $1 million). Subject to conditions, the RFI may treat the individual account holder as resident for tax purposes of the country where their current residence address is located.

    The current residence address for these purposes is the residential address recorded by the RFI for the Account Holder. A residential address is one where the RFI understands or presumes the account holder resides. A 'care of' or post office box address would not generally be presumed to be the residential address (except in special circumstances such as that of military personnel).

    The address must be current. It will not be current if it has been used for mailing purposes by the RFI and the mail was returned as undeliverable (other than due to an error). However, a residence address associated with an account (other than an Annuity Contract) classified as a dormant account (see section 3.14) may be considered current, even though mail was returned as undeliverable during the dormancy period.

    The current residence address must be substantiated by evidence. The type of acceptable evidence depends on the circumstances. In this section of our guidance, for the purpose of aiding understanding, specific terminology is used in describing three types of evidence:

    • Documentary Evidence – the evidence specified in paragraph E(6) of Section VIII of the CRS; broadly, it covers certain documents issued by an authorised government body, an audited financial statement, third party credit report, bankruptcy filing or securities regulator’s report
    • supporting documentation – a document issued by an authorised government body or a utility company
    • general documentation – any of the above, and any other government or formal commercial document (for example, a trust deed or company certificate).

    The current residence is substantiated if the RFIs policies and procedures ensure the currently recorded address is the same as, or in the same jurisdiction as a residential address shown in Documentary Evidence.

    If the RFI is unable to match the current resident address to Documentary Evidence as above, the current residence is substantiated if the RFIs policies and procedures ensure the currently recorded address is in the same jurisdiction as the government issuing the Documentary Evidence.

    If the RFI is unable to match the current resident address to Documentary Evidence as above, either because Documentary Evidence is absent from the records, or an address is absent, it may rely on recently issued supporting documentation.

    Finally, and only in the case of individual accounts opened before the introduction of Documentary Evidence requirements under AML/KYC procedures or in circumstances where AML/KYC was not required to be collected such as in the case of Listed Investment Entities, the substantiation requirement will be satisfied if the current residence address is in the same jurisdiction as:

    • an address on the most recent general documentation; and
    • an address most recently reported by the RFI under the Annual Investment Income Reporting (AIIR) to the ATO.

    It is not necessary for the RFI retain a copy of the relevant evidence, as it is sufficient to have made and retained a notation or record of the details from the evidence.

    Electronic records search

    Where an RFI is unable to establish the residence of an individual with a Lower Value Account with the residence address test, or chooses not to apply the residence address test, it must review its electronically searchable data for indicia of the individual’s residence.

    The Account Holder is regarded as a resident of a foreign jurisdiction if any of the indicia following apply:

    1. the Account Holder is identified as resident of a foreign jurisdiction or as a US citizen

    2. a current mailing or residence address (including a post office box) of the Account Holder is in a foreign jurisdiction

    3. there are one or more current telephone numbers in a foreign jurisdiction and no telephone number for the account holder in Australia

    4. for non-depository accounts only, that there are current standing instructions to transfer funds to an account maintained in a foreign jurisdiction

    5. there is a currently effective power of attorney or signatory authority granted to a person with an address in a foreign jurisdiction

    6. an 'in-care-of' address or 'hold mail' instruction in a foreign jurisdiction if the RFI does not have any other address on file for the Account Holder.

    If none of these indicia are discovered through an electronic search, no further action is required for Lower Value Accounts unless and until there is a subsequent change of circumstance that results in one or more of these indicia being associated with the account or the Account Holder, or the account becomes a High Value Account.

    Effect of finding indicia

    Where any of the first four indicia are found or subsequently arise the account becomes a Reportable Account unless the RFI takes action that leads to the indicia being cured. The RFI may (but is not required to) cure the indicia by obtaining both:

    • a self-certification (if not already obtained); and
    • Documentary Evidence supporting the self-certification to establish the Account Holder's non-reportable status.

    Where the only indicium found or arising is item 5 (power of attorney or signatory authority), the account becomes a Reportable Account unless the RFI takes action that cures the indicia. The RFI may (but is not required to) cure the indicia by obtaining either:

    • a self-certification (if not already obtained); or
    • Documentary Evidence supporting the self-certification to establish the Account Holder's non-reportable status.

    In the case where the only indicium is item 6 above (an 'in-care-of' address or 'hold mail' instruction in a foreign jurisdiction and no other address on file for the Account Holder), the RFI is required to undertake at least one of these actions:

    • conduct a paper record search of certain documents specified in the CRS; or
    • seek a self-certification certification or Documentary Evidence from the account holder to establish their tax residency.

    If the paper record search action is chosen and further foreign indicia are found, the account is a Reportable Account unless the RFI takes the appropriate curing action for the indicia. If the paper record search finds an Australian address and no other foreign indicia are found, the account is not a Reportable Account.

    For any of these curing procedures in which Documentary Evidence is obtained, the evidence will be sufficient to confirm non-reportable status for CRS purposes (but not FATCA) if it contains a current Australian residential address.

    If the chosen course of action fails to resolve the status of the account the RFI is required to attempt the other course of action. If neither course of action is successful in resolving the status of the account, the RFI must report the account as an undocumented account.

    If foreign residence indicia were found and not remediated under the options available, the account is a Reportable Account for the indicated jurisdiction(s). The RFI maintaining the account must make reasonable efforts to obtain the account holder's date of birth and TIN if these are not already held, see section 5.5.

    An RFI must monitor the balance of Lower Value Pre-existing Individual Accounts on the last day of each year from 2017. On the first occasion the balance exceeds $1 million, the account becomes a High Value Account and the RFI must carry out the enhanced review procedures for High Value accounts in the next calendar year.

    4.6 Due diligence – pre-existing individual accounts, high value accounts

    For CRS purposes, a High Value Account is an individual account with an aggregate balance or value that exceeds $1 million on 30 June 2017 or on 31 December of that year or any subsequent year.

    FATCA also includes the concept of High Value Accounts. For FATCA purposes, an individual account is a High Value Account if it had an aggregated balance or value exceeding USD $1 million on either 30 June 2014 or on 31 December 2015, or exceeds that amount on 31 December of any subsequent year. Accounts that were High Value Accounts on 30 June 2014 required due diligence to have been completed by 30 June 2015.

    This section covers the due diligence procedures for both CRS and FATCA High Value Accounts.

    The RFI must, for both the CRS and FATCA, start with an electronic record search and then continue, where appropriate, with a paper record search and a relationship manager inquiry.

    Electronic record search

    The electronic record search for CRS is a search for the same indicia as described for Lower Value Accounts in section 4.5.

    The electronic record search for FATCA means a search for:

    • identification of the Account Holder as a U.S. citizen or resident
    • unambiguous indication of a U.S. place of birth
    • current U.S. mailing or residence address (including a U.S. post office box)
    • current U.S. telephone number
    • standing instructions to transfer funds to an account maintained in the U.S.
    • currently effective power of attorney or signatory authority granted to a person with a U.S. address, or
    • an 'in-care-of' or 'hold mail' address that is the sole address the RFI has on file for the Account Holder. In the case of a Pre-existing Individual Account that is a Lower Value Account, an 'in-care-of' address outside the U.S. or 'hold mail' address shall not be treated as U.S. indicia.

    Paper record search

    If the RFI's electronically searchable databases include fields for the indicia included in the electronic record search, and capture all of the information described in those fields, a paper record search is not required for the CRS.

    Under the CRS an RFI is required to carry out a paper record search but only to the extent that the required information on an Account Holder is not covered by the electronic search. For example, where the electronically searchable databases contain all the required information except for details of standing instructions to transfer funds, the paper record search will only be required to look for that information.

    A more strict paper record search obligation applies for FATCA. An RFI will only be relieved from a paper record search on High Value Accounts if the RFI's electronically searchable information includes all of the following:

    • the Account Holder’s nationality or residence status
    • the Account Holder’s residence address and mailing address currently on file with the RFI
    • the Account Holder’s telephone number(s) currently on file, if any, with the RFI
    • whether there are standing instructions to transfer funds in the account to another
    • whether there is a current 'in-care-of' address or 'hold mail' address for the Account Holder and
    • whether there is any power of attorney or signatory authority for the account.

    If an RFI cannot meet this condition for FATCA, it must conduct a paper record search for any of the indicia explained earlier in this section for the electronic record search.

    For both the CRS and FATCA, a blank field in the electronically searchable information is acceptable if the RFI has policies and procedures in place that mean a field is only left blank when such information is not applicable to the account. For example, a blank field for any standing instructions to transfer means there are no such instructions in any of the RFIs records for the account, or that such a feature is not applicable.

    For both the CRS and FATCA the paper record search for indicia should include a review of the current master file and, to the extent that they are not contained in the current master file, the following documents associated with the account and obtained by the Financial Institution within the last 5 years:

    • the most recent Documentary Evidence collected with respect to the account
    • the most recent account opening contract or documentation
    • the most recent documentation obtained by the Financial Institution for AML/KYC procedures or other regulatory purposes
    • any power of attorney or signatory authority currently in effect
    • any standing instructions to transfer funds currently in effect (in the case of the CRS, instructions for a Depository Account is not a potential indicium).

    Relationship manager

    A relationship manager inquiry is always required for High Value Accounts if the account or any account aggregated with it has such a manager. The relationship manager inquiry is in addition to the electronic record search and (if appropriate) the paper record search. The RFI must consider whether any relationship manager associated with the account or any accounts aggregated with such an account has actual knowledge that would identify the Account Holder as a Reportable Person.

    The RFI must treat a High Value Account as a Reportable Account if a relationship manager has actual knowledge that the Account Holder is a Reportable Person.

    A relationship manager is an employee or officer of the RFI who has been assigned responsibility for specific Account Holders on an ongoing basis. A relationship manager would provide advice to Account Holders regarding their accounts as well as recommending and arranging for the provision of financial products, services and other related assistance.

    Where an account is aggregated with other accounts for account balance or value purposes, the actual knowledge of a relationship manager of any of those accounts (including accounts of Related Entities) determines the status of all of those accounts.

    Relationship management must be more than ancillary or incidental to a person’s job role. A person with some contact with Account Holders, but whose functions are of a back office, administrative or clerical nature, is not considered to be a relationship manager.

    A relationship manager also has an important role in identifying any change of circumstance for a high value individual account.

    Effect of finding indicia

    For both the CRS and FATCA, if none of the relevant indicia are found in the review of the High Value Account and there is no relationship manager with actual knowledge that the Account Holder is a Reportable Person, no further action is required until there is a change in circumstances resulting in one or more indicia being associated with the account.

    For the CRS only, in the special case where the only indicium is an 'in-care-of' address or 'hold mail' instruction in a foreign jurisdiction and there is no other address on file for the Account Holder, the RFI must obtain a self-certification or Documentary Evidence from the account holder to establish their tax residency. If the RFI cannot obtain either of these, it must report the account as an undocumented account – see section 5.7.

    Other than the special case mentioned above, for both CRS and FATCA if any indicia are found in the review of the account, or there is a subsequent change in circumstances that results in one or more indicia being associated with the account, the RFI must treat the account as a Reportable Account for each jurisdiction indicated unless it elects to apply certain permitted 'curing' procedures.

    Curing procedures for high value accounts

    An RFI may 'cure' (disregard) certain indicia for both the CRS and FATCA if it obtains or has previously obtained and recorded a self-certification and Documentary Evidence that establishes the Account Holder's status as non-reportable. The indicia for reporting on a Reportable Jurisdiction or the U.S. that can be cured in this way are:

    • a current mailing or residence address in a Reportable Jurisdiction or the U.S.
    • one or more telephone numbers in a Reportable Jurisdiction or the U.S., and no telephone number in the RFI's jurisdiction (CRS) or no other non-U.S. telephone number (FATCA)
    • standing instructions to transfer funds to an account in a Reportable Jurisdiction or the U.S.

    An RFI may cure a currently effective power of attorney or signatory authority granted to a person with a reportable jurisdiction for both the CRS and FATCA if it obtains or has previously obtained and recorded a self-certification or Documentary Evidence that establishes the Account Holder's status as non-reportable.

    For FATCA only, an RFI may cure certain indicia if it obtains or has previously obtained and recorded a self-certification or Documentary Evidence that establishes the Account Holder's status as non-reportable. The indicia that can be cured in this way are:

    • an 'in-care-of' address or 'hold mail' address that is the sole address identified for the Account Holder;
    • one or more U.S. telephone numbers and one or more non-U.S. telephone numbers are associated with the account.

    Also for FATCA only, an RFI may cure an unambiguous record of a U.S. place of birth if it obtains or has previously obtained and recorded the following documentation:

    • a self-certification;
    • a non-U.S. passport or other government issued identification evidencing the Account Holder's citizenship or nationality for a non-U.S. country; and
    • either a copy of the Account Holder's Certificate of Loss of Nationality of the United States or a reasonable explanation of why they do not have such a certificate or did not obtain U.S. citizenship at birth.

    4.7 Due diligence – self-certification for new individual accounts

    Upon opening of a new individual account, a reporting Financial Institution must:

    • obtain a self-certification that allows the RFI to determine the Account Holder’s residences for tax purposes
    • confirm the reasonableness of such self-certification.

    If the self-certification establishes that the Account Holder is a tax resident of a foreign jurisdiction, from 1 July 2017 the RFI must obtain the Account Holder’s date of birth and for most foreign residence jurisdictions, the taxpayer identification number (TIN) issued by the foreign jurisdiction. See section 5.5 of this guidance for an explanation of TIN and date of birth requirements.

    Obtaining a self-certification of residency and, if needed, the date of birth and the foreign TIN is generally a prerequisite to opening an account. The statement of self-certification should cover residency status in all cases and, where foreign tax residency is identified, affirmation by the Account Holder of their date of birth and the TIN provided. The account opening should not proceed if the person seeking the account cannot (or refuses to) provide these items.

    An RFI may rely on a valid self-certification previously provided by an individual in connection with an account in meeting due the diligence obligations for another account. For example a self-certification provided for an earlier account can be relied upon for the opening of a new account, so long as the self-certification remains reliable for the older account (no change in circumstances has affected its reliability). If any of the information collected on the opening of the new account conflicts with the existing self-certification, this should be followed up through the change of circumstances process – see section 4.17.

    If the Account Holder claims not to have a TIN for the foreign jurisdiction, the self-certification should confirm this. For jurisdictions where TIN usage is widespread, the RFI should seek and record the reason for the lack of a TIN. An RFI may rely on the self-certification and explanation provided there is no reason to believe the statement is false (see also section 5.5 for a discussion of TINs).

    If the self-certification establishes that the Account Holder is a foreign tax resident, the RFI must treat the account as a Reportable Account. An account holder may be a tax resident of more than one jurisdiction.

    The self-certification may be part of the account opening documentation. The reasonableness check can be done based on other information obtained by the RFI for the account opening, including any documentation collected using AML/KYC procedures.

    Generally RFIs must ensure that valid self-certifications are always obtained for new accounts. There may be exceptional circumstances where it is not possible to obtain a self-certification on ‘day one’ of the account opening process – for example, where an insurance contract was assigned from one person to another, or where an investor acquires shares in an investment trust on the secondary market. In such exceptional circumstances, the self-certification should be both obtained and validated as quickly as feasible, and within 90 days. The RFI should have robust procedures in place to ensure self-certifications are obtained in these circumstances.

    If an RFI does not obtain the self-certification including, when required, the date of birth and TIN upon account opening for a New Individual Account, the RFI should not complete the account opening process. If the RFI opens the account in such circumstances, the RFI will not be compliant with the due diligence requirements. A penalty applies for each failure to obtain a self-certification – see section 6.1 of this guidance.

    Where a self-certification is obtained at account opening but a reasonableness check of the self-certification cannot be completed because it is a ‘day two’ process undertaken by a back-office function, the reasonableness of the self-certification should be checked within a period of 90 days.

    An RFI is considered to have confirmed the reasonableness of a self-certification if, in the course of opening the account and on review of the information obtained when opening the account, it does not know or have reason to know that the self-certification is incorrect or unreliable.

    If an RFI later determines that a self-certification is incorrect or unreliable, it must obtain another valid self-certification. Alternatively, it must obtain a reasonable explanation and appropriate documentation that supports the accuracy of the original self-certification. The RFI must retain a copy or notation of such explanation and documentation.

    If the RFI cannot obtain an explanation or appropriate documentation to support the validity of the original self-certification, it is not required to close the account. It must treat the Account Holder as a resident of the jurisdiction in which the Account Holder originally claimed to be resident as well as any other jurisdiction in which the RFI has indications that the Account Holder may be resident.

    4.8 Due diligence – pre-existing entity account thresholds

    A Pre-existing Entity Account is an account held by an entity (a non-individual) on 30 June 2017 in the case of the CRS, or that was held on 30 June 2014 in the case of FATCA.

    Both AEOI regimes have a $250,000 threshold where the RFI is not required to review accounts that had a balance at or below that threshold on the initial test date. The RFI may elect to disregard the threshold and review all Pre-existing Entity Accounts. Such an election may be made separately for any clearly identified group of such accounts.

    Where an RFI applies the $250,000 threshold to an account, the RFI must review the aggregated account balance at 31 December each year to determine if the balance has exceeded the threshold on that date. In the case of the CRS, the first 6-month period following 30 June 2017 is a special reporting period and for CRS purposes is treated as being a calendar year. The first review date to test the threshold is therefore 31 December 2017.

    In the case of FATCA, the threshold against which an account is tested at 31 December of subsequent years is $1,000,000.

    Once the balance has exceeded $250,000 (for the CRS) or $1,000,000 (for FATCA) at a review date, the account becomes reviewable and due diligence must be carried out in the following 12 months.

    Example

    An RFI is applying the threshold for Pre-existing Entity Accounts for both the CRS and FATCA. The aggregated balance of a particular Entity Account was as follows on each dated listed:

    30 June 2014 $120,000

    31 December 2015 $280,000

    31 December 2016 $220,000

    30 June 2017 $190,000

    31 December 2017 $290,000

    The account was not initially reviewable for FATCA purposes, because the balance did not exceed $250,000 on 30 June 2014. It remains non-reviewable for FATCA purposes through 31 December 2017 because the account balance on each subsequent test date has not exceeded $1,000,000.

    The account was not initially reviewable for CRS purposes because the balance did not exceed $250,000 on 30 June 2017. However it became reviewable for CRS purposes on 31 December 2017 due to the balance exceeding the threshold. Due diligence procedures under the CRS must be carried out for the account in the following 12 months.

    Note: if it elects to, the RFI could forgo the threshold for FATCA purposes from 1 January 2018 and apply due diligence for both the CRS and FATCA at the same time. Such a consolidated process might provide efficiencies for the RFI.

    4.9 Due diligence – pre-existing entity accounts

    If an RFI is required to carry out due diligence on an entity account, it must follow these procedures to determine if the account is held by one or more entities that are Reportable Persons. The RFI must also establish whether an entity is a Passive NFE or should be treated as a Passive NFE and if so, "look through" the entity account holder to the Controlling Persons to determine whether they are Reportable Persons.

    Account holder as a reportable person

    An RFI must review information maintained for regulatory or customer relationship purposes (including information collected for AML/KYC purposes) to determine whether the Account Holder is resident of a foreign jurisdiction. Information indicating that the Account Holder is resident in a foreign jurisdiction includes:

    • a place of incorporation or organisation in a foreign jurisdiction;
    • an address in a foreign jurisdiction.

    If the information indicates that the Account Holder is a foreign resident, the RFI must treat the account as a Reportable Account unless, at the RFI's option, it cures this status by:

    • obtaining a self-certification to the contrary from the Account Holder (signed by a person with authority to sign on behalf of the entity), or
    • reasonably determining based on information in its possession or publicly available that the Account Holder is not a Reportable Person (for example, where such information shows that the entity is a listed public company, an Australian superannuation fund or a Governmental Entity).

    'Publicly available' information includes information published by a government body, publicly accessible registers, the FFI list published by the U.S. IRS and information disclosed on the ASX or other established securities markets.

    The RFI should retain a notation of the type of information reviewed and the date reviewed, if such information is relied on to exclude the account.

    Account holder as a financial institution

    If an Account Holder is a Financial Institution the account would generally not be a Reportable Account for CRS or FATCA purposes. The FFI list published by the U.S. IRS may be relied upon in confirming that an Account Holder is a Financial Institution (but absence from that list does not necessarily mean that an entity is not a Financial Institution as not all Financial Institutions are required to register, and list updates are only completed on a monthly basis).

    The general rule that an account held by a Financial Institution will not be a Reportable Account has an exception under the CRS. Where the Financial Institution is a type B Investment Entity (see section 2.5) and is resident in a jurisdiction that is not a Participating Jurisdiction, the entity is deemed to be a Passive NFE. In this case, due diligence on the Controlling Persons of the entity is required (see following). If the RFI cannot determine whether this exception applies based on available information, it would need to seek a self-certification from the entity.

    For FATCA, while an account held by a Financial Institution is not a Reportable Account, if the Financial Institution is a non-participating Financial Institution then reports on certain payments made to the entity are required. See section 5.12.

    There may be small variations in CRS rules across jurisdictions. If an entity is a resident of a foreign jurisdiction that is a Participating Jurisdiction for the CRS, the entity's status as a Financial Institution for CRS purposes should be resolved under that jurisdiction's laws. If an entity is resident in a jurisdiction that has not implemented the CRS, the standard Australian rules will apply.

    Passive NFE controlling persons

    The RFI must determine whether the entity is a Passive NFE. If so, the RFI must identify the Controlling Persons of the Passive NFE and whether any of those Controlling Persons is a Reportable Person.

    For the purposes of determining whether the entity is a Passive NFE, the RFI must request a self-certification unless it has information in its possession or that is publicly available to reasonably determine the status of the Account Holder.

    To identify the Controlling Persons, the RFI may rely on information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures. If the Passive NFE Account Holder is a legal person (for example, a company), a natural person is treated as a Controlling Person if they meet the AML/KYC threshold for ultimate beneficial ownership. If no natural person meets the threshold, the Controlling Person will be the person who holds the position of senior managing official for the entity.

    See section 4.11 and 4.12 for further explanation where a Passive NFE Account Holder is a trust.

    If a Controlling Person of the Passive NFE is itself an entity, the RFI will need to identify the natural persons that control that entity (and so on, if there is a chain of entities, until the ultimate natural persons with control are determined).

    If the account balance or value does not exceed $1 million, the RFI may also rely on information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures to determine if any of the Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons.

    The process to identify whether a Controlling Person is a Reportable Person is a search for indicia as described for individuals in section 4.5. The same curing options are also available as described in that section.

    If the account balance or value does exceed $1 million, the RFI must seek a self-certification from either the Account Holder or the Controlling Person to establish whether any of the Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. This may be provided in the same self-certification provided by the Account Holder to determine its own status.

    If a self-certification is required but is not received after reasonable efforts to obtain it, the RFI must then rely on an electronic record search for indicia to determine whether any Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. The electronic record search is that as described in section 4.5. If no indicia are present, no further action is required until there is a change in circumstances that results in foreign tax residence indicia for a Controlling Person linked to the account.

    An RFI may rely on a valid self-certification from a Controlling Person that was previously obtained from that person or the entity Account Holder in connection with another account, so long as the self-certification remains reliable for the older account (no change in circumstances has affected its reliability).

    4.10 Due diligence – New entity accounts

    There is no minimum threshold for due diligence on New Entity Accounts under the CRS – all New Entity Accounts must be reviewed. Generally, there is no threshold for FATCA, but see the special case of credit card accounts and revolving credit facilities explained in section 3.2.

    For a New Entity Account, the RFI must determine whether the account is held by one or more entities that are Reportable Persons. The RFI must also establish whether an entity is a Passive NFE or should be treated as a Passive NFE and if so, "look through" the entity account holder to the Controlling Persons to determine whether they are Reportable Persons.

    Account holder as a reportable person

    In order to determine whether an entity Account Holder is a Reportable Person, the RFI must generally obtain a self-certification in the account opening procedure. It must also confirm the reasonableness of the self-certification based on information obtained in connection with the account opening.

    An RFI may rely on a valid self-certification provided for one account in meeting due the diligence obligations for another account. For example a self-certification provided by an entity for an existing account can be relied upon for the opening of a new account, so long as the self-certification remains reliable for the older account (no change in circumstances has affected its reliability). The earlier self-certification must also be reasonable when considered against information collected on the opening of the new account.

    If the self-certification indicates that the Account Holder is resident in a foreign jurisdiction, the RFI must treat the account as a Reportable Account.

    A self-certification is not required where the RFI reasonably determines, based on information in its possession or publicly available, that the Account Holder is clearly not a Reportable Person. For example, where information shows the entity as an Australian superannuation fund, a listed public company or a Governmental Entity, the RFI may make this reasonable determination as these types of entities are not Reportable Persons under the AEOI regimes.

    If an Account Holder is a Financial Institution the account would generally not be a Reportable Account for CRS or FATCA purposes, but see section 4.9 for an explanation of the exception to this general rule.

    Generally, an entity is resident for tax purposes in a jurisdiction if it is liable to tax by reason of its domicile, place of management or incorporation or similar criteria under the laws of that jurisdiction. If applicable, dual resident entities may rely on the tiebreaker rules contained in tax conventions.

    Passive NFE controlling persons

    The RFI must determine whether the entity is a Passive NFE. If so, the RFI must identify the Controlling Persons of the Passive NFE and whether any of those Controlling Persons is a Reportable Person. For the purposes of determining whether the entity is a Passive NFE, the RFI must request a self-certification unless it has information in its possession or that is publicly available so it can reasonably determine the status of the Account Holder.

    To identify the Controlling Persons, the RFI may generally rely on information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures. These procedures must be consistent with recommendations 10 and 25 of the FATF Recommendations (as adopted in February 2012), including always treating the settlors and beneficiaries of a trust as Controlling Persons (subject to the discussions in sections 4.11 and 4.12 of this Guidance).

    If the Passive NFE Account Holder is a legal person (for example, a company), a natural person is treated as a Controlling Person if they meet the AML/KYC threshold for ultimate beneficial ownership. If no natural person meets the threshold, the Controlling Person will be the person who holds the position of senior managing official for the entity.

    See section 4.11 and 4.12 for further explanation where a Passive NFE Account Holder is a trust.

    If a Controlling Person of the Passive NFE is itself an entity, the RFI will need to identify the natural persons that control that entity (and so on, if there is a chain of entities, until the ultimate natural persons with control are determined).

    The RFI must seek a self-certification from either the Account Holder or the Controlling Person to establish if any Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. This may be provided in the same self-certification as that provided by the Account Holder to determine its own status.

    As a self-certification is required to establish the status of the Controlling Persons, this may be an opportune time to request or confirm the identity of the Controlling Persons (even though the RFI could solely rely on AML/KYC information for that purpose and procedures consistent with the FATF Recommendations).

    The guidance in sections 4.7, 4.14 and 5.5 relating to self-certifications, their reasonableness, validity and requirements for TINs is also relevant to the collection of self-certifications confirming the identity, tax residence status and other required details (including TIN) of the Controlling Persons of a Passive NFE.

    4.11 Due diligence – settlors of trusts

    For a trust determined to be a Passive NFE, it is necessary to determine the Controlling Persons. It is also necessary to determine whether a Controlling Person is a Reportable Person (a tax resident of a foreign jurisdiction). The settlor of the trust is included in the definition of Controlling Person. Whether such a person actually controls the trust is not relevant for AEOI purposes.

    For many Australian trusts, there may be practical difficulties in determining the identity of the settlor. Where the settlor is identified, obtaining the information required for a self-certification may also be difficult if the settlor has no continuing connection to the trust or the trustee. This guidance recognises those difficulties, while remaining consistent with requirements under the AEOI regimes.

    Pre-existing entity account

    The following assumes that the account was opened prior to the relevant pre-existing account date for the AEOI regime, is subject to review by reason of exceeding the relevant AEOI regime threshold, the Account Holder is a trust and that the trust is determined to be a Passive NFE.

    The RFI maintaining the account must identify the Controlling Persons of the trust. In the case of trusts, Controlling Persons corresponds to 'beneficial owners' under the FATF Recommendations. It may do so based on information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures that apply to the customer or account. If the information required to be collected and maintained under AML/KTC procedures did not include the identity of the settlor and the RFI has not recorded that identity, no further action is required.

    If the account type does not have related AML/KYC information (for example, because such accounts were not subject to those procedures), the RFI must seek the identity of Controlling Persons by self-certification.

    Having identified the Controlling Persons to the extent required by the relevant AEOI due diligence procedures, the RFI must determine if the identified Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. In the case of an account with a balance or value that does not exceed $1 million, the RFI may rely on the same information used to identify the Controlling Persons (beneficial owners), in line with AML/KYC procedures. If the review of that information did not identify the settlor, or identified the settlor but the available information does not indicate their foreign tax residency, the RFI is not required to seek further information.

    In the case of an account with a balance or value that exceeds $1 million on 30 June 2017, a self-certification from the Account Holder or Controlling Person should be requested to determine if the identified Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. The trustee of the trust may provide this self-certification on behalf of the trust as Account Holder.

    A trustee providing a self-certification is expected to take reasonable care in making statements concerning the status of the trust and its Controlling Persons. If the identity of the settlor is known to the trustee, provided the settlor has no continuing connection to the trust (other than the original settlement that created the trust) and the trustee has no reason to believe that the settlor is a Reportable Person, it may self-certify to that effect. If the settlor is not identified from information held by the RFI, which at least must include information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures, the RFI is not required to seek the identity of the settlor in the request for a self-certification.

    If the RFI has taken reasonable steps to obtain a self-certification and it was not forthcoming, the Reporting Financial Institution must rely on the indicia in its records to determine if a Controlling Person is a Reportable Person. If the Reporting Financial Institution has no such indicia, then that Controlling Person is not treated as a Reportable Person. No further action is required for that person until there is a change in circumstances.

    New entity account

    The RFI maintaining the account must identify the Controlling Persons of the trust. It may do so based on information collected and maintained in line with AML/KYC procedures that apply to the customer or account which are consistent with recommendations 10 and 25 of the FATF Recommendations (as adopted in February 2012). If the identified Controlling Persons do not include the settlor (which may be the case under Australian AML/KYC procedures where the settlor contributed less than $10,000), an RFI would still be required to seek the identity of the settlor. In recognition of the practical difficulties for many Australian trusts in determining the identity (name) or tax residence of the settlor, obtaining a self-certification of the settlor's name, address, date of birth and tax residence from the trustee so far as those details are known to the trustee will suffice.

    If the identity of the settlor is unknown to the trustee or is known but their tax residency is unknown because it has no continuing connection to the trust (other than the original settlement that created the trust), the trustee can self-certify that after reasonable inquiry the trustee has no reason to believe that the settlor is a Reportable Person.

    There is no threshold applicable for New Entity Accounts – the due diligence applies to all New Entity Accounts.

    4.12 Beneficiaries of trusts – controlling persons

    All beneficiaries of a Passive NFE trust are always Controlling Persons. This is consistent with recommendations 10 and 25 of the FATF Recommendations (as adopted in February 2012). In determining the Controlling Persons who are beneficiaries of a trust that is a Passive NFE, an RFI may rely on information collected and maintained through AML/KYC procedures for both Pre-existing and New Entity Accounts.

    An RFI must also determine whether the beneficiaries of such a trust identified as Controlling Persons are Reportable Persons. In the case of a Pre-existing Entity Account, the RFI may rely on information collected and maintained through AML/KYC Procedures, provided the aggregate balance or value of the account does not exceed $1 million. This means that for such an account, if there are no indicia of foreign tax residency for an identified beneficiary or class of beneficiaries in that information, no further action is required for that beneficiary or class of beneficiaries.

    For any Pre-existing Entity Account with a balance or value exceeding $1 million and any New Entity Accounts (regardless of balance or value), more due diligence is required for a Passive NFE trust account holder in determining whether the identified beneficiaries or any members of a class of beneficiaries are Reportable Persons. A self-certification is required from either the trustee or the beneficiary for each beneficiary. This self-certification requirement may introduce administrative complexity, particularly for discretionary trusts.

    One approach that an RFI may take could be to require the trustee to identify all beneficiaries and certify their residency status in the initial due diligence. This practice may be relatively practical for trusts with clearly limited and identified beneficiaries (such as a simple family trust) and would be an acceptable approach.

    However, such an approach may be more difficult in the case of trusts with broad classes of beneficiaries. All beneficiaries are potentially, for AEOI purposes, Controlling Persons. This extends to all members of a class of beneficiaries. RFIs must identify the Controlling Persons and identifying them is not dependent on whether a beneficiary controls the trust. Identifying all beneficiaries and their residency status may be onerous or impossible at the time of on-boarding in the case of a class of beneficiaries that is numerous or not capable of identification at that point in time.

    To reduce the burden of such a task, RFIs may make the choice mentioned in paragraph 134 of the Commentary on section VIII, to allow RFIs to align the scope of beneficiaries of a trust treated as Controlling Persons with those treated as Reportable Persons of a trust that is a Financial Institution. Under this approach, a beneficiary will only be treated as a Controlling Person in a year if they receive or become entitled to receive a distribution from the trust. For an RFI that has made the choice mentioned in paragraph 134, a discretionary beneficiary would only need to be identified as a Controlling Person in the initial due diligence self-certification if the beneficiary has received or become entitled to receive a distribution in the year up to the date of signing the certification, or the beneficiary otherwise has actual control of the trust.

    In practice, the RFI may make this choice itself by requiring the trustee to provide a self-certification in a particular form, or it may allow the trustee to make the choice in its self-certification statement.

    A choice to apply paragraph 134 means the RFI needs to put procedures in place to ensure it is informed of distributions by the trust to foreign tax residents after the initial self-certification, within the time needed to correctly report on the account each year. Possible ways to achieve this are:

    • the RFI seeking annual refreshment of the certification – this requires the account holder (the trustee) to re-certify whether any members of the class of beneficiaries who have received distributions since the previous certification are foreign residents
    • the RFI requiring the trustee, as a condition of holding the account and on an as needed and a timely basis, to inform the RFI that the trust has made or will make a distribution to a foreign resident beneficiary.

    Note that a distribution to a foreign resident beneficiary means a distribution from the trust, which is not necessarily carried out by making a payment from the Financial Account.

    4.13 Beneficiaries of a trust that is an RFI – equity interests

    A beneficiary of a fixed trust or a mandatory beneficiary of a trust holds an equity interest in the trust if the trust is an RFI. Such a beneficiary will be a pre-existing account holder for AEOI due diligence purposes if they held that equity interest on 30 June 2014 (FATCA) or 30 June 2017 (CRS). A person who is appointed as such a beneficiary or acquires the equity interest after the relevant AEOI date is a new account holder.

    An RFI that is a trust may, for FATCA purposes, choose either the definition of equity interest in the FATCA Agreement or the definition of equity interest under the U.S. FATCA Regulations. The difference is significant in determining if a discretionary beneficiary has an equity interest. Under the FATCA Agreement definition, any discretionary beneficiary, or a member of a class of such beneficiaries, has an equity interest. Under the Regulations, a discretionary beneficiary is treated as holding an equity interest only if the beneficiary received a distribution during the calendar year.

    A similar choice is available for CRS purposes. An RFI that is a trust may apply the broad definition in the CRS or, as explained in the CRS Commentary, use a narrower meaning which treats a discretionary beneficiary as holding an equity interest only if the beneficiary actually receives a distribution during the calendar year.

    The choice of definition for FATCA and CRS are independent. The choice of definition for an AEOI regime may change, as long as the choice is applied to all relevant beneficiaries for a complete reporting period (calendar year). Therefore, to determine if discretionary beneficiaries of an RFI that is a trust are pre-existing account holders, the RFI may determine that all such beneficiaries existing on 30 June 2014 (FATCA) or 30 June 2017 (CRS) are pre-existing account holders. It is then permissible for the RFI to choose the narrower definition of equity interest in the following reporting periods for due diligence and reporting purposes.

    4.14 Validity and reasonableness of a self-certification

    A self-certification from an Account Holder, or in some cases a Controlling Person of an Entity (see sections 4.9 and 4.10) must be signed or otherwise positively affirmed and dated. It must contain the Account Holder's or Controlling Person's:

    • name
    • address (residential if a natural person)
    • jurisdiction(s) of residence for tax purposes.

    If the self-certification indicates foreign residence, it must also contain:

    • a TIN for each foreign jurisdiction (but see section 5.5 for guidance on when this may not be required and an explanation of the validity and reasonableness of TINs or the absence of a TIN)
    • a date of birth (if a natural person).

    The self-certification may be provided in any manner and in any form; for example, electronically, by voice recording or by scanned document. The process of obtaining the self-certification must ensure that the person providing the self-certification is the person named in the self-certification or has the proper authority to certify on their behalf, for example having a current power of attorney. The RFI needs to retain a record of the process used.

    A self-certification can be completed based on a yes or no response to record the customer’s jurisdictions of tax residence, instead of requiring the completion of a blank field. For example, in order to complete a self-certification the person could be asked whether Australia is the sole tax residence of the person, with additional questions only being asked if the answer is no.

    When a self-certification is first obtained as part of the due diligence process for opening an account, the RFI must confirm its reasonableness based on other information held or obtained in connection with the account. This includes documentation collected for AML/KYC purposes. The reasonableness test is met if the RFI does not know or have reason to know that the self-certification is incorrect or unreliable.

    An RFI will know or have reason to know that a self-certification is incorrect or unreliable if it identifies a current residential or postal address in a foreign jurisdiction that conflicts with the jurisdiction(s) of tax residence declared in the self-certification.

    In the case of a self-certification that appears to fail the reasonableness test (for example, because the residence address conflicts with the jurisdiction where the person claims to be a resident for tax purposes), the RFI is expected to seek either:

    • a valid (new) self-certification; or
    • a reasonable explanation and appropriate documentation to resolve the apparent conflict, and retain a copy or notation of how it was resolved.

    The question of what is appropriate documentation depends on the nature of the reasonable explanation. For example, an account holder that explains the presence of a foreign residential address as due to their posting as an Australian diplomat might support the explanation with a diplomatic passport. Appropriate documentation could include documentation already provided if relevant to the reasonable explanation.

    Dual resident individuals may rely upon tiebreaker rules contained in tax treaties (if applicable) when providing an explanation aimed at resolving doubts over a self-certification.

    An RFI is not expected to carry out an independent legal analysis of relevant tax laws to confirm the reasonableness of a self-certification or the correctness of an explanation provided by an account holder. A reasonably plausible explanation of an indicia inconsistency would generally be acceptable if a currently documented residential address aligns with a tax residence declared in a self-certification.

    For example, in the case of a current postal address conflicting with a jurisdiction of tax residence declared in the self-certification, so long as the current residence address aligns with the tax residence, the reasonableness test will be satisfied if a reasonable explanation for the postal address conflict is obtained. No additional documentation is required.

    An RFI that has not been able to obtain either a valid new self-certification or a reasonable explanation and documentation supporting the reasonableness of a self-certification must report the account based on any foreign residence status provided in the original self-certification and any other jurisdiction(s) in which there are indications of foreign residence for the reportable person.

    An RFI does not know or have reason to know that a self-certification is incorrect or unreliable solely because it discovers a foreign telephone number for the person or entity subject to the self-certification, or standing instructions to transfer funds to an account in a foreign jurisdiction, or a current power of attorney or signatory authority to a person with an address in a foreign jurisdiction.

    4.15 Validity of Documentary Evidence

    Documentary Evidence used in due diligence procedures must be valid. Certain documents remain valid indefinitely:

    • Documents issued by an authorised government body, such as a passport;
    • Documents that are not generally renewed or amended, such as a certificate of incorporation.

    Other Documentary Evidence is valid until the later of the expiration date contained in the document or the last day of the fifth calendar year following the year in which the Documentary Evidence is provided to the RFI.

    An RFI may rely on Documentary Evidence provided for one account in meeting the due diligence obligations for another account. For example Documentary Evidence provided by an entity for an existing account can be relied upon for the opening of a new account, so long as the Documentary Evidence remains reliable.

    An RFI does not know or have reason to know that Documentary Evidence is incorrect or unreliable solely because it discovers a foreign telephone number for the person or entity associated with the Documentary Evidence, or standing instructions to transfer funds to an account in a foreign jurisdiction, or a current power of attorney or signatory authority to a person with an address in a foreign jurisdiction.

    4.16 Finalising due diligence before reporting

    Due diligence on Pre-existing Accounts is required to be completed by certain dates depending on the type of Account Holder and balance of the account – see section 1.4. For example, a Pre-existing Individual Account that was a High Value Account on 30 June 2017 must have the first due diligence review completed by 31 July 2018. That deadline is also the reporting deadline for accounts found to be Reportable Accounts.

    In practice, an RFI will need to finalise its due diligence by a time that allows sufficient further time to prepare data for reporting. The time that an RFI selects to "rule off" its records for CRS purposes is a matter for each RFI to decide having regard to its own requirements. The RFI needs to schedule its due diligence program in a way that allows it to complete mandatory procedures by the date it rules off its CRS records.

    Example

    Northern Bank carries out the required due diligence on High Value Accounts through 2017 and into early 2018. In order for the Bank to assemble data and prepare reports for filing with the ATO, it determines that it will need to finalise due diligence by 30 April 2018 in order to prepare the information it holds on its accounts for CRS reporting by 31 July 2018. Northern Bank will need to schedule its due diligence activities on High Value Accounts in time for these to be completed by 30 April 2018.

    Due diligence on Pre-existing Accounts may include contact with Account Holders for the purpose of seeking information, documentation or self-certifications. This could be an optional procedure (for example see section 4.5 on curing indicia found for a Lower Value Account) or a mandatory procedure (for example see section 4.9 on obtaining Controlling Person self-certifications for Passive NFEs with account balances over $1 million).

    Where contact with an Account Holder is an optional procedure, the RFI may carry this out at any time, or not at all. The RFI is not required to finalise any optional procedures in time to take account of the outcomes when preparing CRS reports for the 2017 reporting period.

    Where contact with an Account Holder is a mandatory procedure, the RFI would need to schedule these activities at a time that allows a reasonable period to obtain responses to be taken account of when preparing CRS reports for the 2017 reporting period. The planned schedule should be documented.

    As a guide, a reasonable period of time to obtain and process responses could be 4-8 weeks depending on the communication channel. It is acknowledged that some Account Holders may respond late or not at all. In these circumstances the RFI is not required to take account of late responders providing information after the date that the RFI finalises its due diligence for a reporting period.

    Example

    Southern Investment Fund has a number of accounts with balances greater than $1 million that are held by entities. In order for the Fund to assemble data and prepare reports for filing with the ATO, it decides to finalise due diligence by 31 March 2018 and use the information it holds on its accounts as of that day in preparing its CRS reports. The Fund plans and records a schedule of its due diligence activities on these accounts over a time that allows Passive NFEs to be identified with a further reasonable time allowed to obtain self-certifications in relation to Controlling Persons by 31 March 2018.

    Southern Investment Fund will not be required to consider self-certifications received after 31 March 2018 for its CRS reports due by 31 July 2018. These self-certifications will be considered when reporting on the 2018 reporting period in 2019.

    4.17 Change in circumstances

    A change in circumstances relating to an account or information held by the RFI for an account is a change that results in new or additional information relevant to the status of the account for reporting purposes. It includes an addition or change of an account holder. A change in circumstances for an account must be considered for all accounts maintained by the RFI for the account holder to the extent computerised systems allow aggregation of the accounts.

    An RFI is expected to have procedures that ensure a change in circumstances is identified by the RFI. These procedures should cover information that comes to a relationship manager of a High Value Account (if there is one).

    RFIs should encourage any persons providing a self-certification to notify the RFI of a change in circumstances affecting the validity of the self-certification.

    A change in circumstances may require the RFI to report the account or to take action to resolve the status of the account.

    Account type

    Change in circumstance

    Action required

    Time for action or change in status

    Lower Value Pre-existing Individual Accounts where initial due diligence was the residential address test (CRS only)

    Change causes documentation supporting original residential address to be incorrect or unreliable

    Seek a self-certification and Documentary Evidence to establish tax residence. Electronic record search for indicia if not received

    By the last day of calendar year or 90 calendar days from change, whichever is later

    Lower Value Pre-existing Individual Accounts where initial due diligence was the electronic record search

    Change causes one or more new indicia to be associated with the account, see section 4.5

    Account is reportable, unless curing procedure is applied, see section 4.5

    RFI has the option to delay treating the account as reportable for up to the last day of the calendar year or 90 calendar days from the change if carrying out curing procedure

    Higher Value Pre-existing Individual Accounts

    Change causes one or more new indicia to be associated with the account, see section 4.6

    Account is reportable, unless curing procedure is applied, see section 4.6

    RFI has the option to delay treating the account as reportable for up to 90 calendar days from the change if carrying out curing procedure

    New Individual Accounts

    Change causes the RFI to know or have reason to know that the self-certification is incorrect or unreliable, see section 4.14

    Obtain either a new self-certification or a reasonable explanation with documentation supporting the original self-certification.

    RFI has the option to delay treating the account as reportable until the earlier of 90 calendar days from the change, a new self-certificate is obtained or the original is satisfactorily explained

    Pre-existing Entity Accounts

    Change causes the RFI to know or have reason to know that a self-certification or other documentation is incorrect or unreliable, see section 4.14

    Re-determine the status of the account in accordance with the original due diligence, see below

    Carry out the due diligence by the end of the calendar year or 90 calendar days from the discovery of the change, whichever is the later.

    New Entity Accounts

    Change causes the RFI to know or have reason to know that a self-certification is incorrect or unreliable, see section 4.14

    Re-determine the status of the account in accordance with the original due diligence, see below

    Carry out the due diligence by the end of the calendar year or 90 calendar days from the discovery of the change, whichever is the later.

    Re-determining the status of an Entity account

    Where a change in circumstances has caused an RFI to know or have reason to know that a self-certification or other documentation used in the original due diligence for the account is unreliable, the RFI must re-determine the status of the account. The re-determination process broadly follows the original due diligence process for the account.

    If the change in circumstances has indicated possible tax residence for the Account Holder in a different jurisdiction, the RFI must obtain:

    • a self-certification; or
    • a reasonable explanation and documentation (as appropriate) supporting the reasonableness of the previously collected self-certification or document.

    If the RFI is unable to obtain either of the above, it must treat the Account Holder as a resident of both the original jurisdiction and the new jurisdiction.

    If the change in circumstances has, considering available information, cast doubt on the status of the Account Holder as a Financial Institution, Active NFE or Passive NFE, the RFI must obtain additional documentation or a self-certification (as appropriate) to establish the Account Holder as an Active NFE or Financial Institution. If the RFI is unable to do so, it must treat the Account Holder as a Passive NFE.

    If the change in circumstances indicates possible tax residence of a Controlling Person in another jurisdiction, the RFI must obtain:

    • a new self-certification; or
    • a reasonable explanation and documentation (as appropriate) supporting the reasonableness of the previously collected self-certification or document.

    If the RFI is unable to obtain either of the above, it must rely on an electronic indicia search as described in section 4.5 to determine whether a Controlling Person is a Reportable Person.

    4.18 Account balance aggregation rule

    The aggregate account balance or value is relevant to various due diligence thresholds, for example $1 million in the case of High Value Pre-existing Individual Accounts or $250,000 for Pre-existing Entity Accounts. Other than the special aggregation rule for relationship managers explained below, identical rules apply to aggregation for individual and entity accounts.

    An RFI is required to aggregate all Financial Accounts maintained by it or by a related entity, but only to the extent that the Financial Institution’s computerised systems link the Financial Accounts by reference to a data element such as client number or foreign TIN, and allow account balances or values to be aggregated.

    Each joint holder of a Financial Account must be attributed the entire balance or value of the account for purposes of applying the aggregation requirements.

    Special aggregation rule applicable to relationship managers

    In determining the aggregate balance or value of a pre-existing High Value Account, a Financial Institution is also required to aggregate all accounts held by that person which a relationship manager knows, or has reason to know, are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or established (other than in a fiduciary capacity) by that person.

    4.19 CRS Participating Jurisdictions

    The concept of Participating Jurisdiction is important for due diligence procedures under the CRS. An RFI is required to conduct "look-though" due diligence procedures for certain entity account holders resident in countries that are not Participating Jurisdictions. Those look-through procedures apply to entities that are Type B Investment Entities, see section 2.5. Type B Investment Entities who are not resident in a Participating Jurisdiction are treated as Passive NFEs for CRS purposes. Sections 4.8 and 4.9 explain the requirements to identify and determine the status of Controlling Persons of Passive NFEs.

    A Participating Jurisdiction under the CRS for Australia means a jurisdiction:

    • With which an agreement is in place to exchange CRS information; and
    • It is identified in a published list.

    For this listing purpose the Participating Jurisdictions with an in agreement in place with Australia from 1 July 2017 is as follows:

    Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Guernsey, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, St Vincent & The Grenadines, San Marino, Singapore Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turks & Caicos.

    This list will be updated as required. Additions to the list after 1 July 2017 will state the date from which "look-through" of Passive NFEs of the jurisdiction is not required.

    4.20 CRS committed jurisdictions

    Under Australia's law implementing the CRS, the Commissioner may by legislative instrument declare jurisdictions to be committed jurisdictions. The effect of this declaration would be to allow RFIs to treat declared jurisdictions that are not Participating Jurisdictions as if they are Participating Jurisdictions from 1 July 2017 until 31 December 2019.

    The Commissioner has not yet published a legislative instrument for this purpose. A decision on publishing and content will be made closer to 1 July 2017. Without binding the Commissioner in any way, in considering whether a jurisdiction is a committed jurisdiction he may have regard to a range of factors including commitments and progress towards CRS implementation as recorded by the OECD here: http://www.oecd.org/tax/automatic-exchange/crs-implementation-and-assistance/crs-by-jurisdiction/crs-by-jurisdiction-2018.htmExternal Link

      Last modified: 21 Apr 2017QC 48683