Connected with: control of a partnership, company or trust (except a discretionary trust)
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An entity controls another entity if it or its affiliate (or all of them together):
- owns, or has the right to acquire ownership of, interests in the other entity that give the right to receive at least 40% (the control percentage) of
- any distribution of income or capital by the other entity, or
- if the other entity is a partnership, the net income of the partnership or
- if the other entity is a company, owns, or has the right to acquire ownership of, equity interests in the company that give at least 40% of the voting power in the company.
The meaning of an equity interest includes, but is not limited to, a share in a company.
Olivia and Jill conduct a professional practice in partnership. As they each have a 50% interest in the partnership, they each control the partnership. Therefore, the partnership is connected with each partner, and Olivia and Jill are each connected with the partnership.
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Joseph is a sole trader. He also owns shares in a company that carry 50% of the voting power in the company. The net value of his CGT assets (apart from the shares in the company) is $3 million. In determining whether he satisfies the maximum net asset value test, Joseph must take into account the net value of his CGT assets ($3 million) and the net value of the company’s CGT assets because the company is connected with him. He does not include the market value of his shares in the company in the net value of his CGT assets because this amount is already reflected in the net value of the company's CGT assets.
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Between 40% and 50% control
If an entity's control percentage in another entity is at least 40% but less than 50%, the Commissioner may determine that the first entity does not control the other entity if he is satisfied that a third entity (not including any affiliates of the first entity) controls the other entity.
Whether or not a third entity has a control percentage of at least 40% may assist in determining whether the third entity controls the other entity, but it is not decisive. For example, a third entity may control a discretionary trust because the trustee acts, or could reasonably be expected to act, in accordance with the directions or wishes of the third entity even if the third entity's control percentage is zero. In working out the third entity’s control percentage, the interests of any affiliates of the third entity are taken into account.
Alternatively, it is possible that both of the entities with a control percentage of at least 40%, or both an entity with a control percentage of at least 40% and an entity that controls the other entity in another way, may control the other entity if responsibilities are shared.
Lachlan owns 48% of the shares in Ayoubi Art Supplies. He plays no part in the day-to-day or strategic decision making of the business. Daniel owns 42% of the shares in the company. The remaining 10% of shares are beneficially owned by a third shareholder who does not take part in the management of the business. All shares carry the same voting rights and Daniel makes all day-to-day and strategic decisions for the company. Even though Lachlan owns 48% of the shares in Ayoubi Art Supplies, he would not be taken to control the company if the Commissioner was satisfied that the company is controlled by Daniel.
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