INCOME TAX ASSESSMENT ACT 1936

PART X - ATTRIBUTION OF INCOME IN RESPECT OF CONTROLLED FOREIGN COMPANIES  

Division 1 - Preliminary  

SECTION 318   ASSOCIATES  

318(1)   [Associates of a natural person]  

For the purposes of this Part, the following are associates of an entity (in this subsection called the primary entity ) that is a natural person (otherwise than in the capacity of trustee):


(a) a relative of the primary entity;


(b) a partner of the primary entity or a partnership in which the primary entity is a partner;


(c) if a partner of the primary entity is a natural person otherwise than in the capacity of trustee - the spouse or a child of that partner;


(d) a trustee of a trust where the primary entity, or another entity that is an associate of the primary entity because of another paragraph of this subsection, benefits under the trust;


(e) a company where:


(i) the company is sufficiently influenced by:

(A) the primary entity; or

(B) another entity that is an associate of the primary entity because of another paragraph of this subsection; or

(C) another company that is an associate of the primary entity because of another application of this paragraph; or

(D) 2 or more entities covered by the preceding sub-subparagraphs; or

(ii) a majority voting interest in the company is held by:

(A) the primary entity; or

(B) the entities that are associates of the primary entity because of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and the preceding paragraphs of this subsection; or

(C) the primary entity and the entities that are associates of the primary entity because of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and because of the preceding paragraphs of this subsection.

318(2)   [Associates of a company]  

For the purposes of this Part, the following are associates of a company (in this subsection called the primary entity ):


(a) a partner of the primary entity or a partnership in which the primary entity is a partner;


(b) if a partner of the primary entity is a natural person otherwise than in the capacity of trustee - the spouse or a child of that partner;


(c) a trustee of a trust where the primary entity, or another entity that is an associate of the primary entity because of another paragraph of this subsection, benefits under the trust;


(d) another entity (in this paragraph called the controlling entity ) where:


(i) the primary entity is sufficiently influenced by:

(A) the controlling entity; or

(B) the controlling entity and another entity or entities; or

(ii) a majority voting interest in the primary entity is held by:

(A) the controlling entity; or

(B) the controlling entity and the entities that, if the controlling entity were the primary entity, would be associates of the controlling entity because of subsection (1), because of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, because of another paragraph of this subsection or because of subsection (3);


(e) another company (in this paragraph called the controlled company ) where:


(i) the controlled company is sufficiently influenced by:

(A) the primary entity; or

(B) another entity that is an associate of the primary entity because of another paragraph of this subsection; or

(C) a company that is an associate of the primary entity because of another application of this paragraph; or

(D) 2 or more entities covered by the preceding sub-subparagraphs; or

(ii) a majority voting interest in the controlled company is held by:

(A) the primary entity; or

(B) the entities that are associates of the primary entity because of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and the other paragraphs of this subsection; or

(C) the primary entity and the entities that are associates of the primary entity because of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and the other paragraphs of this subsection;


(f) any other entity that, if a third entity that is an associate of the primary entity because of paragraph (d) of this subsection were the primary entity, would be an associate of that third entity because of subsection (1), because of another paragraph of this subsection or because of subsection (3).

318(3)   [Associates of a trustee]  

For the purposes of this Part, the following are associates of a trustee (in this subsection called the primary entity ):


(a) any entity that benefits under the trust;


(b) if a natural person benefits under the trust - any entity that, if the natural person were the primary entity, would be an associate of that natural person because of subsection (1) or because of this subsection;


(c) if a company is an associate of the primary entity because of paragraph (a) or (b) of this subsection - any entity that, if the company were the primary entity, would be an associate of the company because of subsection (2) or because of this subsection.

318(4)   [Associates of a partnership]  

For the purposes of this Part, the following are associates of a partnership (in this subsection called the primary entity ):


(a) a partner in the partnership;


(b) if a partner in the partnership is a natural person - any entity that, if that natural person were the primary entity, would be an associate of that natural person because of subsection (1) or (3);


(c) if a partner in the partnership is a company - any entity that, if the company were the primary entity, would be an associate of the company because of subsection (2) or (3).

318(5)   [Public unit trust entity]  

In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether an entity is an associate of another entity at a particular time (in this subsection called the test time ):


(a) an entity (in this subsection called the public unit trust entity ) that, apart from this subsection, is the trustee of a public unit trust at the test time is to be treated as if it were a company instead of a trustee; and


(b) the public unit trust entity is taken to be sufficiently influenced by another entity or other entities if the public unit trust entity is accustomed or under an obligation (whether formal or informal), or might reasonably be expected, to act in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the other entity or other entities (whether those directions, instructions or wishes are, or might reasonably be expected to be, communicated directly or through interposed companies, partnerships or trusts); and


(c) another entity or other entities are taken to hold a majority voting interest in the public unit trust entity if either of the following percentages is not less than 50%:


(i) the percentage of the income of the trust represented by the share of the income to which the other entity or other entities are entitled, or that the other entity or other entities are entitled to acquire;

(ii) the percentage of the corpus of the trust represented by the share of the corpus to which the other entity or other entities are entitled, or that the other entity or other entities are entitled to acquire.

318(6)   [Interpretation]  

For the purposes of this section:


(a) a reference to an entity benefiting under a trust is a reference to the entity benefiting, or being capable (whether by the exercise of a power of appointment or otherwise) of benefiting, under the trust, either directly or through any interposed companies, partnerships or trusts; and


(b) a company is sufficiently influenced by an entity or entities if the company, or its directors, are accustomed or under an obligation (whether formal or informal), or might reasonably be expected, to act in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the entity or entities (whether those directions, instructions or wishes are, or might reasonably be expected to be, communicated directly or through interposed companies, partnerships or trusts); and


(c) an entity or entities hold a majority voting interest in a company if the entity or entities are in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than 50% of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the company.

318(7)  


In this section and any other provision of this Act that has effect for the purposes of this section, a reference to the spouse of a person does not include:


(a) a spouse who is legally married to the person but living separately and apart from the person on a permanent basis; or


(b) a spouse within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition of spouse in subsection 995-1(1) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 who is living separately and apart from the person on a permanent basis.


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