Criminal Code Act 1995

Schedule - The Criminal Code  

Section 3

CHAPTER 2 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY  

Part 2.4 - Extensions of criminal responsibility  

Division 11  

SECTION 11.2A   Joint commission  

Joint commission

(1)  
If:


(a) a person and at least one other party enter into an agreement to commit an offence; and


(b) either:


(i) an offence is committed in accordance with the agreement (within the meaning of subsection (2)); or

(ii) an offence is committed in the course of carrying out the agreement (within the meaning of subsection (3));
the person is taken to have committed the joint offence referred to in whichever of subsection (2) or (3) applies and is punishable accordingly. Offence committed in accordance with the agreement

(2)  
An offence is committed in accordance with the agreement if:


(a) the conduct of one or more parties in accordance with the agreement makes up the physical elements consisting of conduct of an offence (the joint offence ) of the same type as the offence agreed to; and


(b) to the extent that a physical element of the joint offence consists of a result of conduct - that result arises from the conduct engaged in; and


(c) to the extent that a physical element of the joint offence consists of a circumstance - the conduct engaged in, or a result of the conduct engaged in, occurs in that circumstance. Offence committed in the course of carrying out the agreement

(3)  
An offence is committed in the course of carrying out the agreement if the person is reckless about the commission of an offence (the joint offence ) that another party in fact commits in the course of carrying out the agreement. Intention to commit an offence

(4)  
For a person to be guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section, the person and at least one other party to the agreement must have intended that an offence would be committed under the agreement. Agreement may be non-verbal etc

(5)  
The agreement:


(a) may consist of a non-verbal understanding; and


(b) may be entered into before, or at the same time as, the conduct constituting any of the physical elements of the joint offence was engaged in. Termination of involvement etc

(6)  
A person cannot be found guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section if, before the conduct constituting any of the physical elements of the joint offence concerned was engaged in, the person:


(a) terminated his or her involvement; and


(b) took all reasonable steps to prevent that conduct from being engaged in. Person may be found guilty even if another party not prosecuted etc

(7)  
A person may be found guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section even if:


(a) another party to the agreement has not been prosecuted or has not been found guilty; or


(b) the person was not present when any of the conduct constituting the physical elements of the joint offence was engaged in. Special liability provisions apply

(8)  
Any special liability provisions that apply to the joint offence apply also for the purposes of determining whether a person is guilty of that offence because of the operation of this section.




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