AUSTRALIAN TAX TREATIES

Netherlands Agreement  

AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME  

CHAPTER V - SPECIAL PROVISIONS  

ARTICLE 25   Exchange of Information  

(1)  
The competent authorities of the States shall exchange such information as is necessary for the carrying out of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the States concerning the taxes to which this Agreement applies insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1 . Any information received by the competent authority of a State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes to which this Agreement applies and shall be used only for such purposes.

(2)  
In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) be construed so as to impose on a State the obligation -


(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other State;


(b) to supply particulars which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other State;


(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or to supply information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.




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