The purpose of this document is to facilitate the understanding of the application of the MLI to the Agreement and it does not constitute a source of law. The authentic legal text of this tax treaty and any supplementary instruments remain the legal texts applicable.

SYNTHESISED TEXT OF THE MLI AND THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME

If you follow the information in this document, and it turns out to be incorrect, or it is misleading and you make a mistake as a result, the ATO will take that into account when determining what action, if any, we should take

General disclaimer on this synthesised text document

This document presents the synthesised text for the application of the Agreement between Australia and the Republic of Poland for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (the “Agreement”) signed on 7 May 1991 as modified by the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting signed by Australia and Poland on 7 June 2017 (the ‘MLI’).

This document was prepared in consultation with The Ministry of Finance of Poland and represents our shared understanding of the modifications made to the Agreement by the MLI.

The document was prepared on the basis of the MLI position of Australia submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 26 September 2018 and of the MLI position of Poland submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 23 January 2018. These MLI positions are subject to modifications as provided in the MLI. Modifications made to MLI positions could modify the effects of the MLI on the Agreement.

The sole purpose of this document is to facilitate the understanding of the application of the MLI to the Agreement and it does not constitute a source of law. The authentic legal texts of the Agreement and the MLI take precedence and remain the legal texts applicable.

The provisions of the MLI that are applicable with respect to the provisions of the Agreement are included in boxes throughout the text of this document in the context of the relevant provisions of the Agreement. The boxes containing the provisions of the MLI have generally been inserted in accordance with the ordering of the provisions of the 2017 OECD Model Tax Convention.

Changes to the text of the provisions of the MLI have been made to conform the terminology used in the MLI to the terminology used in the Agreement (such as “Covered Tax Agreement”, “Agreement” and “Convention”, “Contracting Jurisdictions” and “Contracting States”), to ease the comprehension of the provisions of the MLI. The changes in terminology are intended to increase the readability of the document and are not intended to change the substance of the provisions of the MLI. Similarly, changes have been made to parts of provisions of the MLI that describe existing provisions of the Agreement: descriptive language has been replaced by legal references of the existing provisions to ease the readability.

In all cases, references made to the provisions of the Agreement or to the Agreement must be understood as referring to the Agreement as modified by the provisions of the MLI, provided such provisions of the MLI have taken effect.

References

Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (provides the authentic legal texts of the MLI).

Agreement between Australia and the Republic of Poland for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (provides, in the case of Australia, the authentic legal text of the Agreement).

Agreement between the Republic of Poland and Australia for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (provides, in the case of the Republic of Poland, the authentic legal text of the Agreement).

Signatories and parties to the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (provides the MLI position of Australia submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 26 September 2018 and the MLI position of Poland submitted to the Depositary upon ratification on 23 January 2018).

Entry Into Effect of the MLI Provisions

The provisions of the MLI applicable to the Agreement do not take effect on the same dates as the original provisions of the Agreement. Each provision of the MLI could take effect on different dates, depending on the types of taxes involved (taxes withheld at source or other taxes levied) and on the choices made by Australia and Poland in their MLI positions.

Dates of the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval:

26 September 2018 for Australia and 23 January 2018 for Poland.

Entry into force of the MLI:

1 January 2019 for Australia and 1 July 2018 for Poland.

In accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 35 of the MLI, the provisions of the MLI (other than Article 16 Mutual Agreement Procedure) have effect with respect to this Agreement:

a)     with respect to taxes withheld at source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, where the event giving rise to such taxes occurs on or after 1 January 2019; and

b)     with respect to all other taxes levied by each Contracting State, for taxes levied with respect to taxable periods beginning on or after 1 July2019.

In accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 35 of the MLI, Article 16 of the MLI (Mutual Agreement Procedure) has effect with respect to this Agreement for a case presented to the competent authority of a Contracting State on or after 1 January 2019, except for cases that were not eligible to be presented as of that date under the Agreement prior to its modification by the MLI, without regard to the taxable period to which the case relates.

AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME

AUSTRALIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND,

DESIRING to conclude an Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income,

The following paragraph 1 of Article 6 of the MLI is included in the preamble of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 6 OF THE MLI – PURPOSE OF A COVERED TAX AGREEMENT

Intending to eliminate double taxation with respect to the taxes covered by [the Agreement] without creating opportunities for non-taxation or reduced taxation through tax evasion or avoidance (including through treaty-shopping arrangements aimed at obtaining reliefs provided in [the Agreement] for the indirect benefit of residents of third jurisdiction),

HAVE AGREED as follows:

Article 1

PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

The following paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 3 OF THE MLI – TRANSPARENT ENTITIES

For the purposes of [the Agreement], income derived by or through an entity or arrangement that is treated as wholly or partly fiscally transparent under the tax law of either [Contracting State] shall be considered to be income of a resident of a [Contracting State] but only to the extent that the income is treated, for the purposes of taxation by that [Contracting State], as the income of a resident of that [Contracting State].

The following paragraph 1 of Article 11 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 11 OF THE MLI – APPLICATION OF TAX AGREEMENTS TO RESTRICT A PARTY’S RIGHT TO TAX ITS OWN RESIDENTS

[The Agreement] shall not affect the taxation by a [Contracting State] of its residents, except with respect to the benefits granted under paragraph 3 of Article 9, paragraph 3 of Article 18, or Articles 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, or 27 of [the Agreement].

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

1.     The existing taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are:

(a)     in Australia:

the income tax, and the resource rent tax in respect of offshore projects relating to exploration for or exploitation of petroleum resources, imposed under the federal law of the Commonwealth of Australia;

(b)     in Poland:

(i)     the income tax (podatek dochodowy);

(ii)     the tax on wages and salaries (podatek od wynagrodzen);

(iii)     the equalisation tax (podatek wyrownawczy);

(iv)     the corporate tax (podatek dochodowy od osob prawnych); and

(v)     the agricultural tax (podatek rolny).

2.     This Agreement shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed under the federal law of the Commonwealth of Australia or under the law of the Republic of Poland after the date of signature of this Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in the laws of their respective States relating to taxes on income within a reasonable period of time after such changes.

Article 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1.     In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)     the term "Australia", when used in a geographical sense, excludes all external territories other than:

(i)     the Territory of Norfolk Island;

(ii)     the Territory of Christmas Island;

(iii)     the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

(iv)     the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands;

(v)     the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands; and

(vi)     the Coral Sea Islands Territory,

and includes any area adjacent to the territorial limits of Australia (including the Territories specified in this subparagraph) in respect of which there is for the time being in force, consistently with international law, a law of Australia dealing with the exploitation of any of the natural resources of the seabed and subsoil of the continental shelf;

(b)     the term "Poland" means the territory of the Republic of Poland, including any area outside its territorial sea within which under the laws of Poland and in accordance with international law the sovereign rights of Poland with respect to the seabed and its subsoil and their natural resources may be exercised;

(c)     the terms "Contracting State", "one of the Contracting States" and "other Contracting State" mean Australia or Poland, as the context requires;

(d)     the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;

(e)     the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a company or body corporate for tax purposes;

(f)     the terms "enterprise of one of the Contracting States" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean an enterprise carried on by a resident of Australia or an enterprise carried on by a resident of Poland, as the context requires;

(g)     the term "tax" means Australian tax or Polish tax, as the context requires;

(h)     the term "Australian tax" means tax imposed by Australia, being tax to which this Agreement applies by virtue of Article 2;

(i)     the term "Polish tax" means tax imposed by Poland, being tax to which this Agreement applies by virtue of Article 2;

(j)     the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft except where the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places within one of the Contracting States;

(k)     the term "competent authority" means, in the case of Australia, the Commissioner of Taxation or an authorised representative of the Commissioner and, in the case of Poland, the Minister of Finance or an authorised representative of the Minister.

2.     In this Agreement, the terms "Australian tax" and "Polish tax" do not include any penalty or interest imposed under the law of either Contracting State relating to the taxes to which this Agreement applies by virtue of Article 2.

3.     In the application of this Agreement by a Contracting State, any term not defined in this Agreement shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that State relating to the taxes to which this Agreement applies, in force at the time of that application.

Article 4

RESIDENCE

1.     For the purposes of this Agreement, a person is a resident of one of the Contracting States if the person is a resident of that Contracting State for the purposes of its tax.

2.     A person is not a resident of a Contracting State for the purposes of this Agreement if the person is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

3.     Where by reason of the preceding provisions of this Article a person, being an individual, is a resident of both Contracting States, then the status of the person shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(a)     the person shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State in which a permanent home is available to the person;

(b)     if a permanent home is available to the person in both Contracting States, or in neither of them, the person shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State in which the person has an habitual abode;

(c)     if the person has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, the person shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State with which the person's economic and personal relations are the closer.

4.     [REPLACED by paragraph 1 of Article 4 and subparagraph e) of paragraph 3 of Article 4 of the MLI] Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident solely of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated.

The following paragraph 1 of Article 4 and subparagraph e) of paragraph 3 Article 4 of the MLI replace paragraph 4 of Article 4 of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 4 OF THE MLI – DUAL RESIDENT ENTITIES

Where by reason of the provisions of [the Agreement] a person other than an individual is a resident of both [Contracting States], the competent authorities of the [Contracting States] shall endeavour to determine by mutual agreement the [Contracting State] of which such person shall be deemed to be a resident for the purposes of [the Agreement], having regard to its place of effective management, the place where it is incorporated or otherwise constituted and any other relevant factors. In the absence of such agreement, such person shall not be entitled to any relief or exemption from tax provided by [the Agreement].

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

1.     For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2.     The term "permanent establishment" shall include especially:

(a)     a place of management;

(b)     a branch;

(c)     an office;

(d)     a factory;

(e)     a workshop;

(f)     a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;

(g)     an agricultural, pastoral or forestry property;

(h)     a building site, or a construction, installation or assembly project, which exists for more than 12 months.

3.     An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment merely by reason of:

(a)     the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise; or

(b)     the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery; or

(c)     the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise; or

(d)     the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or for collecting information, for the enterprise; or

(e)     the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character for the enterprise, such as advertising or scientific research; or

(f)     the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e) if the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

4.     An enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in one of the Contracting States and to carry on business through that permanent establishment if:

(a)     it carries on supervisory activities in that State for more than 12 months in connection with a building site, or a construction, installation or assembly project, which is being undertaken in that State by another enterprise; or

(b)     substantial equipment is used in that State for more than 12 months by, for or under contract with the enterprise.

5.     A person acting in one of the Contracting States on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - shall be deemed to be a permanent establishment of that enterprise in the firstmentioned State if:

(a)     the person has, and habitually exercises in that State, an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, unless the person's activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise; or

(b)     in so acting, the person manufactures or processes in that State for the enterprise goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise.

6.     An enterprise of one of the Contracting States shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a person who is a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status and is acting in the ordinary course of the person's business as such a broker or agent.

7.     The fact that a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself make either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

INCOME FROM REAL PROPERTY

1.     Income from real property may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the real property is situated.

2.     In this Article, the term "real property", in relation to one of the Contracting States, has the meaning which it has under the laws of that State and includes:

(a)     a lease of land and any other interest in or over land including a right to explore for mineral, oil or gas deposits or other natural resources, and a right to mine such deposits or resources; and

(b)     a right to receive variable or fixed payments either as consideration for the exploitation of or the right to explore for or exploit, or in respect of the exploitation of, mineral, oil or gas deposits, quarries or other places of extraction or exploitation of natural resources.

Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as real property.

3.     Any interest or right referred to in paragraph 2 shall be regarded as situated where the land, mineral, oil or gas deposits, quarries or natural resources, as the case may be, are situated or where the exploration may take place.

4.     The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to income from real property of an enterprise and to income from real property used for the performance of professional services.

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

1.     The profits of an enterprise of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2.     Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of one of the Contracting States carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment or with other enterprises with which it deals.

3.     In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses of the enterprise, being expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment (including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred) and which would be deductible if the permanent establishment were an independent entity which paid those expenses, whether incurred in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4.     No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5.     Nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of a Contracting State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person in cases where the information available to the competent authority of that State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment, provided that that law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the competent authority permits, consistently with the principles of this Article.

6.     Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

7.     Nothing in this Article shall affect the operation of any law of a Contracting State relating to tax imposed on profits from insurance with nonresidents provided that if the relevant law in force in either Contracting State at the date of signature of this Agreement is varied (otherwise than in minor respects so as not to affect its general character) the Contracting States shall consult with each other with a view to agreeing to any amendment of this paragraph that may be appropriate.

8.     Where:

(a)     a resident of one of the Contracting States is beneficially entitled, whether directly or through one or more interposed trust estates, to a share of the business profits of an enterprise carried on in the other Contracting State by the trustee of a trust estate other than a trust estate which is treated as a company for tax purposes; and

(b)     in relation to that enterprise, that trustee would, in accordance with the principles of Article 5, have a permanent establishment in that other State,

the enterprise carried on by the trustee shall be deemed to be a business carried on in the other State by that resident through a permanent establishment situated therein and that share of business profits shall be attributed to that permanent establishment.

Article 8

SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT

1.     Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State.

2.     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, such profits may be taxed in the other Contracting State where they are profits from operations of ships or aircraft confined solely to places in that other State.

3.     The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall apply in relation to the share of the profits from the operation of ships or aircraft derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States through participation in a pool service, in a joint transport operating organisation or in an international operating agency.

4.     For the purposes of this Article, profits derived from the carriage by ships or aircraft of passengers, livestock, mail, goods or merchandise shipped in a Contracting State for discharge at another place in that State shall be treated as profits from operations of ships or aircraft confined solely to places in that State.

Article 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1.     Where:

(a)     an enterprise of one of the Contracting States participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or

(b)     the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of one of the Contracting States and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions operate between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which might be expected to operate between independent enterprises dealing wholly independently with one another, then any profits which, but for those conditions, might have been expected to accrue to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2.     Nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of a Contracting State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person, including determinations in cases where the information available to the competent authority of that State is inadequate to determine the income to be attributed to an enterprise, provided that that law shall be applied, so far as it is practicable to do so, consistently with the principles of this Article.

3.     Where profits on which an enterprise of one of the Contracting States has been charged to tax in that State are also included, by virtue of paragraph 1 or 2, in the profits of an enterprise of the other Contracting State and charged to tax in that other State, and the profits so included are profits which might have been expected to have accrued to that enterprise of the other State if the conditions operative between the enterprises had been those which might have been expected to have operated between independent enterprises dealing wholly independently with one another, then the first mentioned State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged on those profits in the firstmentioned State. In determining such an adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and for this purpose the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

DIVIDENDS

1.     Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States for the purposes of its tax, being dividends to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2.     Such dividends may be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident for the purposes of its tax, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends.

3.     The term "dividends" in this Article means income from shares or other rights to participate in profits and not relating to debt claims, as well as other income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4.     The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the dividends, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In any such case the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5.     Where a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States derives profits, income or gains from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are beneficially owned by a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to tax, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits, income or gains arising in that other State.

Article 11

INTEREST

1.     Interest arising in one of the Contracting States, being interest to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2.     Such interest may be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3.     The term "interest" in this Article includes interest from Government securities or from bonds or debentures, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in profits, and interest from any other form of indebtedness as well as all other income assimilated to income from money lent by the law, relating to tax, of the Contracting State in which the income arises.

4.     The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the interest, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business in the other Contracting State, in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the indebtedness in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5.     Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself or a political subdivision or local authority of that State or a person who is a resident of that State for the purposes of its tax. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether the person is a resident of one of the Contracting States or not, has in one of the Contracting States a permanent establishment or fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6.     Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the person beneficially entitled to the interest, or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest paid, having regard to the indebtedness for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which might have been expected to have been agreed upon by the payer and the person so entitled in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the lastmentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the amount of the interest paid shall remain taxable according to the law, relating to tax, of each Contracting State, but subject to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12

ROYALTIES

1.     Royalties arising in one of the Contracting States, being royalties to which a resident of the other Contracting State is beneficially entitled, may be taxed in that other State.

2.     Such royalties may be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3.     The term "royalties" in this Article means payments or credits, whether periodical or not, and however described or computed, to the extent to which they are made as consideration for:

(a)     the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, trademark, or other like property or right; or

(b)     the use of, or the right to use, any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment; or

(c)     the supply of scientific, technical, industrial or commercial knowledge or information; or

(d)     the supply of any assistance that is ancillary and subsidiary to, and is furnished as a means of enabling the application or enjoyment of, any such property or right as is mentioned in subparagraph (a), any such equipment as is mentioned in subparagraph (b) or any such knowledge or information as is mentioned in subparagraph (c); or

(e)     the use of, or the right to use:

(i)     motion picture films; or

(ii)     films or video tapes for use in connection with television; or

(iii)     tapes for use in connection with radio broadcasting; or

(f)     total or partial forbearance in respect of the use or supply of any property or right referred to in this paragraph.

4.     The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the person beneficially entitled to the royalties, being a resident of one of the Contracting States, carries on business in the other Contracting State, in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State professional services from a fixed base situated therein, and the property or right in respect of which the royalties are paid or credited is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5.     Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself or a political subdivision or local authority of that State or a person who is a resident of that State for the purposes of its tax. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether the person is a resident of one of the Contracting States or not, has in one of the Contracting States a permanent establishment or fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and the royalties are borne by the permanent establishment or fixed base, then the royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6.     Where, owing to a special relationship between the payer and the person beneficially entitled to the royalties, or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties paid or credited, having regard to what they are paid or credited for, exceeds the amount which might have been expected to have been agreed upon by the payer and the person so entitled in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the lastmentioned amount. In that case, the excess part of the amount of the royalties paid or credited shall remain taxable according to the law, relating to tax, of each Contracting State, but subject to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13

ALIENATION OF PROPERTY

1.     Income or gains derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States from the alienation of real property referred to in Article 6 and, as provided in that Article, situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2.     Income or gains from the alienation of property, other than real property referred to in Article 6, that forms part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of one of the Contracting States has in the other Contracting State or pertains to a fixed base available to a resident of the first mentioned State in that other State for the purpose of performing independent professional services, including income or gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3.     Income or gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or of property other than real property referred to in Article 6 pertaining to the operation of those ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the enterprise which operated those ships or aircraft is a resident.

4.     [MODIFIED by paragraph 1 of Article 9 of the MLI] Income or gains derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States from the alienation of shares or comparable interests in a company, the assets of which consist wholly or principally of real property in the other Contracting State of a kind referred to in Article 6, may be taxed in that other State.

The following paragraph 1 of Article 9 of the MLI applies to paragraph 4 of Article 13 of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 9 OF THE MLI – CAPITAL GAINS FROM ALIENATION OF SHARES OR INTERESTS OF ENTITIES DERIVING THEIR VALUE PRINCIPALLY FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

[Paragraph 4 of Article 13 of the Agreement:]

a)     shall apply if the relevant value threshold is met at any time during the 365 days preceding the alienation; and

b)     shall apply to shares or comparable interests, such as interests in a partnership or trust (to the extent that such shares or interests are not already covered) in addition to any shares or rights already covered by the provisions [of the Agreement].

5.     Nothing in this Agreement affects the application of a law of a Contracting State relating to the taxation of gains of a capital nature derived from the alienation of property other than that to which any of paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 apply.

Article 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1.     Income derived by an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in respect of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State unless a fixed base is regularly available to the individual in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing the individual's activities. If such a fixed base is available to the individual, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to activities exercised from that fixed base.

2.     The term "professional services" includes services performed in the exercise of independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as in the exercise of the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1.     Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived from that exercise may be taxed in that other State.

2.     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by an individual who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the firstmentioned State if:

(a)     the recipient is present in that other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the year of income of that other State; and

(b)     the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of that other State; and

(c)     the remuneration is not deductible in determining taxable profits of a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in that other State.

3.     Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by a resident of one of the Contracting States may be taxed in that State.

Article 16

DIRECTORS' FEES

Directors' fees and similar payments derived by a person who is a resident of one of the Contracting States in the person's capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

ENTERTAINERS

1.     Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by entertainers (such as theatrical, motion picture, radio or television artistes and musicians and athletes) from their personal activities as such may be taxed in the Contracting State in which these activities are exercised.

2.     Where income in respect of the personal activities of an entertainer as such accrues not to that entertainer but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer are exercised.

3.     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, income derived in respect of the activities referred to in paragraph 1 within the framework of a cultural or sports exchange program agreed to by the Governments of the Contracting States shall be exempted from tax in the Contracting State in which these activities are exercised.

Article 18

PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

1.     Pensions (including government pensions) and annuities paid to a resident of one of the Contracting States shall be taxable only in that State.

2.     The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

3.     Any alimony or other maintenance payment arising in one of the Contracting States and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first mentioned State.

Article 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1.     Remuneration, other than a pension or annuity, paid by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or local authority of that State to any individual in respect of services rendered in the discharge of governmental functions shall be taxable only in that State. However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other State and the recipient is a resident of that other State who:

(a)     is a citizen of that State; or

(b)     did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of performing the services.

2.     The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with any trade or business carried on by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or local authority of that State. In such a case, the provisions of Article 15 or 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 20

STUDENTS

Where a student, who is a resident of one of the Contracting States or who was a resident of that State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is temporarily present in that other State solely for the purpose of his or her education, receives payments from sources outside that other State for the purpose of his or her maintenance or education, those payments shall be exempt from tax in that other State.

Article 21

PROFESSORS AND TEACHERS

1.     Where a professor or teacher who is a resident of a Contracting State visits the other Contracting State for a period not exceeding two years for the purpose of teaching or carrying out advanced study or research at a university, college, school or other educational institution in that other State, any remuneration the person receives for such teaching, advanced study or research shall be exempt from tax in that other State to the extent to which that remuneration is, or upon the application of this Article will be, subject to tax in the first mentioned State.

2.     This Article shall not apply to remuneration which a professor or teacher receives for conducting research if the research is undertaken primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 22

INCOME NOT EXPRESSLY MENTIONED

1.     Items of income of a resident of one of the Contracting States which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State but, to the extent that those items are derived from sources in the other Contracting State, they may also be taxed in that other State.

2.     The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States where that income is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or fixed base situated in the other Contracting State. In such a case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 23

SOURCE OF INCOME

Income, profits or gains derived by a resident of one of the Contracting States which, under any one or more of Articles 6 to 8, 10 to 19 and 22, may be taxed in the other Contracting State shall, for the purposes of Article 24 and of the law of each Contracting State relating to its tax, be deemed to be income from sources in that other State.

Article 24

METHODS OF ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1.     Subject to the provisions of the law of Australia from time to time in force which relate to the allowance of a credit against Australian tax of tax paid in a country outside Australia (which shall not affect the general principle hereof), Polish tax paid under the law of Poland and in accordance with this Agreement, whether directly or by deduction, in respect of income derived by a person who is a resident of Australia from sources in Poland shall be allowed as a credit against Australian tax payable in respect of that income.

2.     Where a company which is a resident of Poland and is not a resident of Australia for the purposes of Australian tax pays a dividend to a company which is a resident of Australia and which controls directly or indirectly not less than 10 per cent of the voting power of the firstmentioned company, the credit referred to in paragraph 1 shall include the Polish tax paid by that firstmentioned company in respect of that portion of its profits out of which the dividend is paid.

3.     Where a resident of Poland derives income which under this Agreement may be taxed in Australia, Poland shall deduct from the Polish tax payable in respect of that income an amount equal to the Australian tax paid in respect of that income. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed the Polish tax, computed before the deduction is made, payable in respect of that income.

The following paragraph 2 of Article 3 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 3 OF THE MLI – TRANSPARENT ENTTITIES

[Article 24 of the Agreement] shall not apply to the extent that such provision allows taxation by that other [Contracting State] solely because the income is also income derived by a resident of that other [Contracting State].

Article 25

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1.     Where a person who is a resident of one of the Contracting States considers that the actions of the competent authority of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for the person in taxation not in accordance with this Agreement, the person may, notwithstanding the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, present a case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which the person is a resident. The case must be presented within 3 years from the first notification of the action giving rise to taxation not in accordance with this Agreement.

2.     The competent authority shall endeavour, if the claim appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with this Agreement. The solution so reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the national laws of the Contracting States.

3.     The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall jointly endeavour to resolve any difficulties or doubts arising as to the application of this Agreement.

The following paragraph 3 of Article 16 of the MLI applies to this Agreement:

ARTICLE 16 OF THE MLI – MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

The competent authorities of the [Contracting States] shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of [the Agreement]. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in [the Agreement].

4.     The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Agreement.

Article 26

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1.     The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for the carrying out of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning the taxes to which this Agreement applies in so far as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by the competent authority of a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes to which this Agreement applies and shall be used only for such purposes.

2.     In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on the competent authority of a Contracting State the obligation:

(a)     to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State; or

(b)     to supply particulars which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; or

(c)     to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or to supply information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

Article 27

DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR OFFICIALS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic or consular officials under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special international agreements.

The following paragraph 1 of Article 7 of the MLI applies and supersedes the provisions of this Agreement:

ARTICLE 7 OF THE MLI – PREVENTION OF TREATY ABUSE

(Principal purposes test provision)

Notwithstanding any provisions of [the Agreement], a benefit under [the Agreement] shall not be granted in respect of an item of income […] if it is reasonable to conclude, having regard to all relevant facts and circumstances, that obtaining that benefit was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement or transaction that resulted directly or indirectly in that benefit, unless it is established that granting that benefit in these circumstances would be in accordance with the object and purpose of the relevant provisions of [the Agreement].

Article 28

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1.     This Agreement shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Warsaw.

2.     This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect:

(a)     in respect of withholding tax imposed by a Contracting State on income that is derived by a nonresident of that State, in relation to income derived on or after 1 January; and

(b)     in respect of other tax, in relation to profits, income or gains of any year of income beginning:

(i)     in the case of Australia, on or after 1 July; and

(ii)     in the case of Poland, on or after 1 January,

in the calendar year next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place.

Article 29

TERMINATION

This Agreement shall continue in effect indefinitely, but either of the Contracting States may, on or before 30 June in any calendar year beginning after the expiration of 5 years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State through the diplomatic channel written notice of termination and, in that event, this Agreement shall cease to be effective:

(a)     in respect of withholding tax imposed by a Contracting State on income that is derived by a nonresident of that State, in relation to income derived on or after 1 January; and

(b)     in respect of other tax, in relation to profits, income or gains, of any year of income beginning:

(i)     in the case of Australia, on 1 July; and

(ii)     in the case of Poland, on 1 January,

in the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE in duplicate at Canberra, this seventh day of May, One thousand nine hundred and ninety-one in the English and Polish languages both texts being equally authentic.

FOR AUSTRALIA:

FOR THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND:

[Signed:]

GARETH EVANS

[Signed:]

KRZYSZTOF SKUBISZEWSKI

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You are free to copy, adapt, modify, transmit and distribute material on this website as you wish (but not in any way that suggests the ATO or the Commonwealth endorses you or any of your services or products).