AUSTRALIAN TAX TREATIES
The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated in that other State. If the enterprise carries on business in that manner, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to:
(a) that permanent establishment; or
(b) sales within that other Contracting State of goods or merchandise of a similar kind as sold, or other business activities carried on in that other State of the same or similar kind as those carried on, through that permanent establishment, if it may reasonably be concluded that those sales or business activities would not have been made or carried on but for the existence of that permanent establishment or the continued provision by it of goods or services. 2
Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated in that other State, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might reasonably be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment or with other enterprises with which it deals. 3
In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses of the enterprise, being expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment (including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred) and which would be deductible if the permanent establishment were an independent entity which paid those expenses, whether incurred in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. 4
No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise. 5
Nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of a Contracting State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person, including determinations in cases where the information available to the competent authority of that State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment, provided that that law shall be applied, so far as it is practicable to do so, consistently with the principles of this Article. 6
Where profits include items of income or gains which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article. 7
Nothing in this Article shall affect the operation of any law of a Contracting State relating to tax imposed on profits derived by an enterprise of the other Contracting State from insurance or reinsurance provided that if the relevant law in force in either Contracting State at the date of signature of this Agreement is varied (otherwise than in minor respects so as not to affect its general character) the Contracting States shall consult with each other with a view to agreeing to any amendment of this paragraph that may be appropriate. 8
(a) a resident of a Contracting State is beneficially entitled, whether directly or through one or more interposed trust estates, to a share of the business profits of an enterprise carried on in the other Contracting State by the trustee of a trust estate other than a trust estate which is treated as a company for tax purposes; and
(b) in relation to that enterprise, that trustee would, in accordance with the principles of Article 5, have a permanent establishment in that other State,
the enterprise carried on by the trustee shall be deemed to be a business carried on in the other State by that resident through a permanent establishment situated in that other State and that share of business profits shall be attributed to that permanent establishment.
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