Appendix 1 - Examples of indicators

The following table contains examples of indicators for each of the four key compliance obligations and for community confidence. The table also illustrates the alignment between the desired outcomes, success goals, strategies and indicators.

Compliance obligations and community confidence



Desired outcome

Individual registrations are appropriate to relevant population size.

Taxpayers lodge their income tax returns by the due date.

Success goal

A sustained improvement in complying with the obligations to register (within the identified risk group).

Sustained improvement in the population of late lodgers that lodge their income tax return by the due date.

Target population

High school students that are new entrants.

  • Identified population of late lodgers
  • Tax agents


Strategies and tactics

Help and education:

  • school visits
  • review information products
  • consult with financial institutions.


Help and education:

  • advisory letters for late lodgers
  • visits to tax agents with clients that lodge late.



Trend in number of registered taxpayers (by specific type) compared with relevant external population measures (eg Australian Bureau of Statistics data for population aged 15 years and over).

  • Trend in proportion of late lodgers compared to total population
  • Rate of on-time lodgments
  • Proportion of target population lodging on time


Evaluation approach

  • Trend and ratio analysis
  • Comparison with external benchmark


  • Trend and ratio analysis
  • Measures of central tendency to assess (preferably median) number of days late compared to population/industry group
  • Randomised controlled trials to measure changes in behaviour of the target group


Compliance obligations and community confidence



Community confidence

Desired outcome

Taxpayers with rental properties (and their intermediaries) understand and voluntarily meet their obligations.

Revenue from outstanding debt is collected in a timely manner.

The community perceives increased ATO activity in addressing the cash economy.

Success goal

Rental property investors correctly declare their rental income and claim only those deductions to which they are entitled.

Taxpayers with outstanding debts pay their debts in a timely manner.

The community has increased awareness of our activity in the cash economy.

Target population

  • Rental property owners
  • Tax agents


Identified population of debtors with outstanding debt.

  • Community
  • Tax agents


Strategies and tactics

Active compliance:

  • audits.

Help and education:

  • advisory letters for taxpayers with rental properties
  • visits to agents with clients with rental properties.


Help and education:

  • outbound calls to taxpayers with outstanding debts
  • targeted advisory letters.


Market research:

  • community perception survey
  • professionalism survey.

Marketing and communication:

  • media releases.



  • % change in proportion of correct rental claims in income tax returns over long term for those targeted
  • Trend in rate of notional revenue gain (as measured by targeted letter program)
  • Ratio of rental deductions to gross rent tracked for agents visited


  • Trend in average number of days debt is outstanding
  • Proportion of taxpayers with outstanding debt (pre and post intervention)
  • Ratio of debt to collections for target group


  • Community and tax agent perception surveys reflect increased community awareness of our activity in the cash economy
  • Trend in number of related media releases published in the media


Evaluation approach

  • Randomised controlled trials
  • Longitudinal studies (to measure sustained impact)
  • Trend analysis


  • Trend in average days debt is outstanding for target group
  • Baseline comparison
  • Benchmark comparison to related industry group


  • Baseline comparison
  • Rating scale comparisons across multiple survey periods


Last modified: 19 Jan 2015QC 21200