FRINGE BENEFITS TAX ASSESSMENT ACT 1986

PART I - PRELIMINARY  

SECTION 1   1   SHORT TITLE  
This Act may be cited as the Fringe Benefits Tax Assessment Act 1986.

SECTION 2   2   COMMENCEMENT  
This Act shall come into operation on the day on which it receives the Royal Assent.

SECTION 2A   2A   APPLICATION OF THE CRIMINAL CODE  
Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code applies to all offences against this Act.

Note:

Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

SECTION 2B   APPLICATION  

2B(1)  
This Act extends to every external Territory referred to in the definition of Australia .

2B(2)  
Except so far as the contrary intention appears, this Act extends to acts, omissions, matters and things outside Australia, whether or not in a foreign country.

2B(3)  
Except where otherwise expressly provided, this Act extends to matters and things whether occurring before or after the commencement of this Act.

2B(4)  
This Act binds the Crown in each of its capacities.

PART II - ADMINISTRATION  

SECTION 3   3   GENERAL ADMINISTRATION OF ACT  
The Commissioner has the general administration of this Act.

Note:

An effect of this provision is that people who acquire information under this Act are subject to the confidentiality obligations and exceptions in Division 355 in Schedule 1 to the Taxation Administration Act 1953.

SECTION 4   ANNUAL REPORT  

4(1)   [Commissioner's report to Minister]  

The Commissioner shall, as soon as practicable after 30 June in each year, prepare and furnish to the Minister a report on the working of this Act, including any breaches or evasions of this Act of which the Commissioner has notice.

4(2)   [Report to be tabled]  

The Minister shall cause a copy of a report furnished under subsection (1) to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after the day on which the Minister receives the report.

4(3)   [Periodic report]  

For the purposes of section 34C of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, a report that is required by subsection (1) to be furnished as soon as practicable after 30 June in a year shall be taken to be a periodic report relating to the working of this Act during the year ending on that 30 June.

SECTION 5   5   SECRECY  
(Repealed by No 145 of 2010)

PART IIA - CORE PROVISIONS  

Division 1 - Working out an employer's fringe benefits taxable amount  

SECTION 5A   5A   SIMPLIFIED OUTLINE OF THIS DIVISION  
The following is a simplified outline of this Division:

This Division explains how to work out an employer's fringe benefits taxable amount for a year of tax. This is the amount on which the employer must pay fringe benefits tax (see section 66).

SECTION 5B   WORKING OUT AN EMPLOYER'S FRINGE BENEFITS TAXABLE AMOUNT  

5B(1)  
(Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

5B(1A)   Year of tax 2000-2001 and later years.  

Subject to subsection (1D), an employer's fringe benefits taxable amount for the year of tax beginning on 1 April 2000 or a later year of tax is the sum of the subsection (1B) amount and the subsection (1C) amount.

Note:

Other provisions affect the fringe benefits taxable amount. For example, see section 124 (about assessments).

5B(1B)   Subsection (1B) amount.  

The subsection (1B) amount is the amount worked out using the formula:


Type 1 aggregate
fringe benefits
amount
×                   FBT rate + GST rate                  
(1 - FBT rate) × (1 + GST rate) × FBT rate

5B(1C)   Subsection (1C) amount.  

The subsection (1C) amount is the amount worked out using the formula:


Type 2 aggregate
fringe benefits amount
×           1          
1 - FBT rate

5B(1D)   Increase in fringe benefits taxable amount for year of tax 2000-2001 and later years.  

If any benefits provided in respect of the employment of an employee of an employer are exempt benefits under section 57A, the employer's fringe benefits taxable amount for the year of tax beginning on 1 April 2000 or a later year of tax as worked out under subsection (1A) is increased by the employer's aggregate non-exempt amount for the year of tax concerned.

5B(1E)   How to work out aggregate non-exempt amount.  

An employer's aggregate non-exempt amount for the year of tax is worked out as follows. Method statement


Step 1.

For each employee, add:

(a) the individual grossed-up type 1 non-exempt amount (see subsection (1F)) in relation to the employer for the year of tax; and

(b) the individual grossed-up type 2 non-exempt amount (see subsection (1G)) in relation to the employer for the year of tax.

The result is the individual grossed-up non-exempt amount for the employee.


Step 2.

If:

(a) (Repealed by No 142 of 2003)

(b) the employer is a government body and the duties of the employment of one or more employees are as described in paragraph 57A(2)(b) (which is about duties of employment being exclusively performed in or in connection with certain hospitals); or

(c) the employer is a public hospital; or

(ca) the employer provides public ambulance services or services that support those services and the employee is predominantly involved in connection with the provision of those services; or

(d) the employer is a hospital described in subsection 57A(4) (which is about hospitals carried on by societies and associations that are rebatable employers);

subtract $17,000 from the individual grossed-up non-exempt amount for each employee of the employer referred to in paragraph (c), (ca) or (d), or each employee referred to in paragraph (b), for the year of tax. However, if the individual grossed-up non-exempt amount for such an employee is equal to or less than $17,000, the amount calculated under this step for the employee is nil.


Step 3.

If step 2 does not apply in respect of one or more employees of the employer, reduce the individual grossed-up non-exempt amount for each such employee by $30,000, but not below nil.


Step 4.

If the amount calculated under step 2 or 3 in respect of an employee is positive, reduce that amount (but not below nil) by the lesser of:

(a) $5,000; and

(b) so much of the employee's individual grossed-up non-exempt amount as relates to benefits covered by subsection (1M) (about salary packaged meal entertainment and entertainment facility leasing benefits).


Step 5.

Add together the amounts calculated under step 4 in relation to the employees of the employer. The total amount is the employer's aggregate non-exempt amount for the year of tax.

5B(1F)   Individual grossed-up type 1 non-exempt amount.  

For the purposes of step 1 in the method statement in subsection (1E), the individual grossed-up type 1 non-exempt amount of an employee in relation to the employer for the year of tax is:


Type 1
individual base
non-exempt amount
×                    FBT rate + GST rate                   
(1 - FBT rate) × (1 + GST rate) × FBT rate

5B(1G)   Individual grossed-up type 2 non-exempt amount.  

For the purposes of step 1 in the method statement in subsection (1E), the individual grossed-up type 2 non-exempt amount of an employee in relation to the employer for the year of tax is:


Type 2
individual base
non-exempt amount
×            1           
(1 - FBT rate)

5B(1H)   Working out the type 1 individual base non-exempt amount.  

An employee's type 1 individual base non-exempt amount in relation to the employer for the year of tax is worked out by adding the amounts worked out under step 3 of the method statement in subsection (1K) and step 3 of the method statement in subsection (1L).

5B(1J)   Working out the type 2 individual base non-exempt amount.  

An employee's type 2 individual base non-exempt amount in relation to the employer for the year of tax is worked out by adding the amounts worked out under step 4 of the method statement in subsection (1K) and step 4 of the method statement in subsection (1L).

5B(1K)   Working out the subsection (1K) amounts.  

An employee's subsection (1K) amounts for the year of tax are worked out as follows. Method statement


Step 1.

Work out under subsection 135Q(3) for each of the employer's employees the amount that would be the employee's individual fringe benefit amount for the year of tax in respect of the employee's employment by the employer if subsection 135Q(1) were amended:

(a) by omitting "or 58"; and

(b) by omitting "one of those sections" from paragraph (b) and "those sections" from paragraph (c) and substituting in each case "that section".


Step 2.

Identify the benefits taken into account in step 1 that are GST-creditable benefits (see section 149A).


Step 3.

So much of the amount worked out under step 1 that relates to the benefits identified under step 2 is the step 3 of subsection (1K) amount for the individual.


Step 4.

The remainder of the amount is the step 4 of subsection (1K) amount for the individual.

5B(1L)   Working out the subsection (1L) amounts.  

An employee's subsection (1L) amounts for the year of tax are worked out as follows. Method statement


Step 1.

Work out for each employee his or her share (if any) of the amounts that, if section 57A did not apply, would be the taxable values of the excluded fringe benefits for the year of tax in respect of the employee's employment by the employer if those benefits were not excluded fringe benefits, but disregarding benefits:

(a) that constitute the provision of meal entertainment as defined in section 37AD (whether or not the employer made an election under section 37AA); or

(b) that are car parking fringe benefits; or

(c) whose taxable values are wholly or partly attributable to entertainment facility leasing expenses.


Step 2.

Identify the benefits taken into account in step 1 that are GST-creditable benefits (see section 149A).


Step 3.

So much of the amount worked out under step 1 that relates to the benefits identified under step 2 is the step 3 of subsection (1L) amount for the individual.


Step 4.

The remainder of the amount is the step 4 of subsection (1L) amount for the individual.

Salary packaged meal entertainment and entertainment facility leasing benefits

5B(1M)  


This subsection covers a benefit that is provided under a salary packaging arrangement if:


(a) the benefit is constituted by the provision of meal entertainment (as defined in section 37AD, whether or not the employer has elected that Division 9A of Part III apply to the employer); or


(b) the benefit is wholly or partly attributable to entertainment facility leasing expenses.

5B(2)   Using aggregate fringe benefits amount for most recent base year.  

This section is subject to section 135G.

Note:

Section 135G allows the fringe benefits taxable amount to be worked out using the employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount from an earlier year of tax in special cases.

5B(3)   Definitions.  

In this section:

FBT rate
means the rate of fringe benefits tax for the year of tax.

GST rate
means the rate of goods and services tax payable under the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 for the year of tax.

type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount
means the employer's type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax worked out under subsection 5C(3).

type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount
means the employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax worked out under subsection 5C(4).

Division 2 - Working out an employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount  

SECTION 5C   AGGREGATE FRINGE BENEFITS AMOUNT  

5C(1)   [Calculating the amount]  

Work out an employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount for a year of tax earlier than the year of tax beginning on 1 April 2000 as follows: Method statement


Step 1.

Work out under Division 3 for each of the employer's employees the individual fringe benefits amount for the year of tax in respect of the employment of the employee by the employer.


Step 2.

Add up all the individual fringe benefits amounts worked out under Step 1.


Step 3.

Add up the taxable value of every excluded fringe benefit (other than an amortised fringe benefit) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and the year of tax.

Note:

Subsection 5E(3) explains what is an excluded fringe benefit.


Step 4.

Add the total from Step 2 to the total from Step 3.

Note:

The result of Step 4 is the employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount if there are no amortised fringe benefits or reducible fringe benefits in relation to the employer.


Step 5.

Add to the total from Step 4 the amortised amount for the year of tax of each amortised fringe benefit (if any) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and any year of tax.


Step 6.

Subtract from the total from Step 5 the reduction amount for the year of tax of each reducible fringe benefit (if any) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and the year of tax.

5C(2)   [Years from 1 April 2000]  

An employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax beginning on 1 April 2000 or a later year of tax is the sum of the employer's type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount and the employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax.

5C(3)   [Type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount]  

Work out an employer's type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount for a year of tax as follows. Method statement


Step 1.

Identify the fringe benefits in respect of each of the employer's employees that are GST-creditable benefits (see section 149A), and work out under Division 3 for each of those employees the individual fringe benefits amount for the year of tax in relation to those fringe benefits.


Step 2.

Add up all the individual fringe benefits amounts worked out under step 1.


Step 3.

Identify the excluded fringe benefits (other than an amortised fringe benefit) for the year of tax in respect of each of the employer's employees that are GST-creditable benefits, and add up the taxable values of all those excluded fringe benefits.

Note 1:

Subsection 5E(3) explains what is an excluded fringe benefit.

Note 2:

Section 149A explains what is a GST-creditable benefit.


Step 4.

Add the total from step 2 to the total from step 3.

Note:

The result of step 4 is the employer's type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount if there are no amortised amounts in relation to the employer.


Step 5.

Add to the total from step 4 the amortised amount for the year of tax of each amortised fringe benefit (if any) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and any year of tax that are GST-creditable benefits. The total amount is the employer's type 1 aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax.

Note:

Section 65CA explains what is an amortised fringe benefit.

5C(4)   [Type 2 amount]  

Work out an employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount for a year of tax as follows. Method statement


Step 1.

Identify, in respect of each of the employer's employees, the fringe benefits that are not taken into account under step 1 of the method statement in subsection (3), and work out under Division 3 for each of those employees the individual fringe benefits amount for the year of tax in relation to those fringe benefits.


Step 2.

Add up all the individual fringe benefits amounts worked out under step 1.


Step 3.

Identify, in respect of each of the employer's employees, the excluded fringe benefits (other than an amortised fringe benefit) for the year of tax that are not taken into account under step 3 of the method statement in subsection (3), and add up the taxable values of all those excluded fringe benefits.

Note:

Subsection 5E(3) explains what is an excluded fringe benefit.


Step 4.

Add the total from step 2 to the total from step 3.

Note:

The result of step 4 is the employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount if there are no amortised amounts or reducible fringe benefits in relation to the employer.


Step 5.

Add to the total from step 4 the amortised amount for the year of tax of each amortised fringe benefit (if any) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and any year of tax that is not taken into account under step 5 of the method statement in subsection (3).

Note 1:

The result of step 5 is the employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount if there are no reducible fringe benefits in relation to the employer.

Note 2:

Section 65CA explains what is an amortised fringe benefit.


Step 6.

Subtract from the total from step 5 the reduction amount for the year of tax of each reducible fringe benefit (if any) relating to an employee of the employer, the employer and the year of tax. The total amount is the employer's type 2 aggregate fringe benefits amount for the year of tax.

Note:

Other provisions may affect the aggregate fringe benefits amount. For example, see section 67 (about arrangements to avoid or reduce tax), section 135L (about reducing the aggregate fringe benefits amount of an employer who is in business for only part of a year of tax) and section 152B (about entertainment facility leasing expenses).

Division 3 - Employee's individual fringe benefits amount  

SECTION 5D   5D   SIMPLIFIED OUTLINE  
The following is a simplified outline of this Division:

An employee's individual fringe benefits amount is the employee's share of the taxable value of fringe benefits (with some exclusions) provided in respect of his or her employment.

SECTION 5E   EMPLOYEE'S INDIVIDUAL FRINGE BENEFITS AMOUNT  

5E(1)   Overview.  

This section explains how to work out an employee's individual fringe benefits amount for a year of tax in respect of the employee's employment by an employer.

5E(2)   General rule.  

The individual fringe benefits amount is the sum of the employee's share of the taxable value of each fringe benefit that relates to the year of tax and is provided in respect of the employment other than an excluded fringe benefit.

5E(3)   What is an excluded fringe benefit ?  

An excluded fringe benefit is a fringe benefit:


(a) that is:


(i) constituted by the provision of meal entertainment (as defined in section 37AD, whether or not the employer has elected that Division 9A of Part III apply to the employer); and

(ii) not provided under a salary packaging arrangement; or


(b) that is a car parking fringe benefit (see subsection 136(1)); or


(c) that is:


(i) a benefit whose taxable value is wholly or partly attributable to entertainment facility leasing expenses; and

(ii) not provided under a salary packaging arrangement; or


(d) (Repealed by No 52 of 2000)


(e) whose taxable value is worked out under section 59 (about remote area residential fuel); or


(f) whose taxable value is reduced under section 60 (about remote area housing); or


(g) that is an amortised fringe benefit (see subsection 136(1)); or


(h) that is a reducible fringe benefit (see subsection 136(1)); or


(i) that is a benefit prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph; or


(j) that relates to occasional travel to a major population centre in Australia provided to employees and family members resident in a location that is not in or adjacent to an eligible urban area; or


(k) that relates to freight costs for foodstuffs provided to employees resident in a location that is not in or adjacent to an eligible urban area; or


(l) that is provided to address a security concern:


(i) relating to the personal safety of an employee, or an associate of an employee; and

(ii) that arises in respect of the employee's employment.

5E(4)   If section 135G applies to the employer.  

If:


(a) section 135G applies for working out the employer's liability to pay tax for the year of tax; and


(b) one or more fringe benefits are provided in relation to the year of tax in respect of the employee's employment by the employer;

the employee's individual fringe benefits amount is the amount determined by the employer in writing. This subsection has effect despite subsection (2).

Note:

Section 135G allows use of the employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount for an earlier year of tax in working out the employer's liability for tax for the current year of tax.

5E(5)   Determining individual fringe benefits amounts.  

In making a determination under subsection (4), the employer must:


(a) ensure that the total of the amount or amounts determined by the employer under that subsection for the year of tax equals the aggregate fringe benefits amount used for working out the employer's liability to pay tax for the year of tax; and


(b) if that subsection applies to 2 or more of the employer's employees for the year of tax - act reasonably, having regard to the fringe benefit or fringe benefits provided in relation to the year of tax in respect of each employee's employment.

5E(6)   Security concerns relating to employees or associates.  

A fringe benefit referred to in paragraph (3)(l) is an excluded fringe benefit only to the extent that its provision is consistent with a threat assessment in relation to the employee or associate made by a person who is recognised by:


(a) a relevant industry body or government body; or


(b) the Commissioner;

as competent to make threat assessments.

SECTION 5F   WORKING OUT THE EMPLOYEE'S SHARE  

5F(1)   Overview.  

This section explains how to work out an employee's share of the taxable value of a fringe benefit relating to the employee, an employer and a year of tax.

5F(2)   Individually-valued benefit provided in respect of one employee.  

The employee's share is 100% of the taxable value if:


(a) the fringe benefit was provided in respect of the employment of the employee by the employer and was not provided in respect of the employment of anyone else; and


(b) the taxable value of the fringe benefit was worked out for that particular fringe benefit (not merely as part of the total taxable value of fringe benefits in a class including that particular benefit).

5F(3)   Individually-valued benefit shared by 2 or more employees.  

The employee's share is so much of the taxable value as is reasonably attributable to the provision of the fringe benefit in respect of the employee's employment by the employer, taking account of any relevant matters, if:


(a) the fringe benefit was provided in respect of the employment of the employee by the employer and in respect of the employment of another employee; and


(b) the taxable value of the fringe benefit was worked out for that particular fringe benefit (not merely as part of the total taxable value of fringe benefits in a class including that particular benefit).

5F(4)   Benefits valued in aggregate.  

If:


(a) the fringe benefit is one of a class of fringe benefits provided in respect of the employment of one or more employees by the employer; and


(b) the total taxable value of all the fringe benefits in the class is worked out by a single calculation;

the employee's share of the taxable value of the fringe benefit is so much of the total taxable value as is reasonably attributable to the provision of the fringe benefit in respect of the employee's employment by the employer, taking account of any relevant matters.

5F(5)   Shares of different employees must total 100% of taxable value.  

If:


(a) the fringe benefit was provided in respect of the employment of 2 or more employees; and


(b) each of those employees has an employee's share of the taxable value of the fringe benefit;

the sum of those shares must equal the taxable value of the fringe benefit.

5F(6)   Single employee's shares must equal total taxable value.  

If all the fringe benefits in a class described in subsection (4) are provided in respect of the employment of the same employee (and none of them is provided in respect of the employment of anyone else), the sum of the employee's shares of the taxable value of the fringe benefits must equal the total taxable value of the fringe benefits.

PART III - FRINGE BENEFITS  

Division 1 - Preliminary  

SECTION 6   6   PART NOT TO LIMIT GENERALITY OF BENEFIT  


The provisions of this Part do not limit the generality of the expression benefit .

Division 2 - Car fringe benefits  

Subdivision A - Car benefits  

SECTION 7   CAR BENEFITS  

7(1)   [Car applied to, available for employee's private use]  

Where:


(a) at any time on a day, in respect of the employment of an employee, a car held by a person (in this subsection referred to as the provider ):


(i) is applied to a private use by the employee or an associate of the employee; or

(ii) is taken to be available for the private use of the employee or an associate of the employee; and


(b) either of the following conditions is satisfied:


(i) the provider is the employer, or an associate of the employer, of the employee;

(ii) the car is so applied or available, as the case may be, under an arrangement between:

(A) the provider or another person; and

(B) the employer, or an associate of the employer, of the employee;

that application or availability of the car shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided on that day by the provider to the employee or associate in respect of the employment of the employee.

7(2)   [Car garaged at employee's residence]  

Where, at a particular time, the following conditions are satisfied in relation to an employee of an employer:


(a) a car is held by a person, being:


(i) the employer;

(ii) an associate of the employer; or

(iii) a person (other than the employer or an associate of the employer) with whom, or in respect of whom, the employer or an associate of the employer has an arrangement relating to the use or availability of the car;


(b) the car is garaged or kept at or near a place of residence of the employee or of an associate of the employee;

the car shall be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to be available at that time for the private use of the employee or associate, as the case may be.

7(2A)   [Ambulance, firefighting, police]  

Subsection (2) does not apply to a car that:


(a) is used by an ambulance service, a firefighting service or a police service; and


(b) is visibly marked on its exterior for that use; and


(c) is fitted with:


(i) a flashing warning light; and

(ii) a horn, bell or alarm that can give audible warning of the approach or position of the car by making sounds with different amplitude, tones or frequencies on a regular time cycle.

7(3)   [Car not at employer's business premises]  

Where, at a particular time, the following conditions are satisfied in relation to an employee of an employer:


(a) a car is held by a person, being:


(i) the employer;

(ii) an associate of the employer; or

(iii) a person (other than the employer or an associate of the employer) with whom, or in respect of whom, the employer or an associate of the employer has an arrangement relating to the use or availability of the car;


(b) the car is not at business premises of:


(i) the employer;

(ii) an associate of the employer; or

(iii) a person (other than the employer or an associate of the employer) with whom, or in respect of whom, the employer or an associate of the employer has an arrangement relating to the use or availability of the car;


(c) any of the following conditions is satisfied:


(i) the employee is entitled to apply the car to a private use;

(ii) the employee is not performing the duties of his or her employment and has custody or control of the car;

(iii) an associate of the employee is entitled to use, or has custody or control of, the car;

the car shall be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to be available at that time for the private use of the employee or associate, as the case may be.

7(4)   [Prohibition on private use not consistently enforced]  

For the purposes of subsection (3), where a prohibition on the application of a car, or on the application of a car for a private use, by a person is not consistently enforced, the person shall be deemed to be entitled to use the car, or to apply the car to a private use, notwithstanding the prohibition.

7(5)   [Car deemed applied by person]  

For the purposes of this Act, a car shall be deemed to be applied by a person if it is applied in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the person.

7(6)   [Car leased under hire-purchase agreement]  

For the purposes of this Division, a car that is let on hire to a person under a hire-purchase agreement shall be deemed:


(a) to have been purchased by the person at the time when the person first took the car on hire; and


(b) to have been owned by the person at all material times.

7(7)   [Reference to "car held by a person"]  

A reference in this Division to a car held by a person (in this subsection referred to as the provider ) does not include a reference to:


(a) a taxi let on hire to the provider; or


(b) a car let on hire to the provider under an agreement of a kind ordinarily entered into by persons taking cars on hire intermittently as occasion requires on an hourly, daily, weekly or other short-term basis unless the car has been or may reasonably be expected to be on hire under successive agreements of a kind that result in substantial continuity of the hiring of the car.

SECTION 8   EXEMPT CAR BENEFITS  

8(1)   [Exempt application or availability for private use]  

Except insofar as section 7 provides that the application or availability of a car held by a person is a benefit, the application or availability of a car held by a person is an exempt benefit.

8(2)   [Exempt vehicles]  

A car benefit provided in a year of tax in respect of the employment of a current employee is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax if:


(a) the car is:


(i) a taxi, panel van or utility truck, designed to carry a load of less than 1 tonne; or

(ii) any other road vehicle designed to carry a load of less than 1 tonne (other than a vehicle designed for the principal purpose of carrying passengers); and


(b) there was no private use of the car during the year of tax and at a time when the benefit was provided other than:


(i) work-related travel of the employee; and

(ii) other private use by the employee or an associate of the employee, being other use that was minor, infrequent and irregular.

8(3)   [Provision of unregistered car]  

Where:


(a) a car benefit relating to a particular car is provided by a particular person (in this subsection called the provider ) in a year of tax in respect of the employment of a current employee of an employer;


(b) at all times during the year of tax when the car was held by the provider, the car was unregistered; and


(c) during the period in the year of tax when the car was held by the provider, the car was wholly or principally used directly in connection with business operations of:


(i) the employer; or

(ii) if the employer is a company - the employer or a company that is related to the employer;

the car benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

8(4)   [Provider cannot deduct under ITAA 97, sec 86-60]  

A car benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to a year of tax if:


(a) the car benefit is provided in the year of tax in respect of the employment of a current employee; and


(b) the person providing the benefit cannot deduct an amount under the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 for providing the benefit because of section 86-60 of that Act.

Note:

Section 86-60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (read together with section 86-70 of that Act) limits the extent to which personal service entities can deduct car expenses. Deductions are not allowed for more than one car for private use.

Subdivision B - Taxable value of car fringe benefits  

SECTION 9   TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR FRINGE BENEFITS - STATUTORY FORMULA  

9(1)  


Subject to this Part, where one or more car fringe benefits in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax relate to a particular car held by a particular person (in this section referred to as the provider ), the taxable value of that fringe benefit, or the aggregate of the taxable values of those fringe benefits, as the case may be, in relation to that year of tax, is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:
formula and definitions

9(2)  
For the purposes of this section:


(a) the base value of the car is the sum of:


(i) where, at the earliest holding time, the car was owned by the provider or an associate of the provider, the amount calculated in accordance with the formula AB,
where:
  • A is the cost price of the car to the provider or associate, as the case may be; and
  • B is:

  • (A) in a case where the commencement of the year of tax is later than the fourth anniversary of the earliest holding time - 2/3; or

    (B) in any other case - 1; and

    (ii) in a case to which subparagraph (i) does not apply - the amount calculated in accordance with the formula AB,
    where:
  • A is the leased car value of the car at the earliest holding time; and
  • B is:

  • (A) in a case where the commencement of the year of tax is later than the fourth anniversary of the earliest holding time - 2/3; or

    (B) in any other case - 1; and

    (iii) the cost price of each non-business accessory that:

    (A) was fitted to the car after the earliest holding time and before the end of the year of tax; and

    (B) remained fitted to the car at a time during the year of tax when the car was held by the provider;


    (b) the earliest holding time, in relation to a car held by the provider at a particular time (in this paragraph referred to as the current time ), is the earliest time before the current time when the car was held by the provider or an associate of the provider; and


    (c) (Repealed by No 62 of 2011)


    (d) (Repealed by No 62 of 2011)


    (e) the amount of the recipient's payment is the sum of:


    (i)in a case where expenses were incurred to the provider or employer during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits by way of consideration for the provision of the car fringe benefits - the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses; and

    (ia) in a case where car expenses in respect of fuel or oil for the car were incurred during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits and:

    (A) the persons incurring those expenses give to the employer, before the declaration date, declarations, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of those expenses; or

    (B) documentary evidence of those expenses is obtained by the persons incurring the expenses and given to the employer before the declaration date;
    the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses; and

    (ii) in a case where:

    (A) car expenses in respect of the car (other than car expenses in respect of fuel or oil for the car) were incurred during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits; and

    (B) documentary evidence of those expenses is obtained by the persons incurring the expenses and given to the employer before the declaration date;
    the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses; and


    (f) the holding period is the period in the year of tax when the car was held by the provider.

    SECTION 10   TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR FRINGE BENEFITS - COST BASIS  

    10(1)   [Election by employer]  

    An employer may, in relation to a particular car, elect that this section apply in relation to all the car fringe benefits in relation to the employer in relation to a year of tax that relate to that car.

    10(2)   [Taxable value]  

    Subject to this Part, where an election is made under subsection (1), the taxable value, or the aggregate of the taxable values, as the case requires, of the car fringe benefits inrelation to the employer in relation to the year of tax that relate to the car while it was held by a particular person (in this section referred to as the provider ) during a particular period (in this section referred to as the holding period ) in the year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:

    (C × (100% - BP)) - R

    where:

    C is the operating cost of the car during the holding period;

    BP is:

  • (a) if, under section 10A or 10B, the employer is not entitled to a reduction in the operating cost of the car on account of business journeys undertaken in the car during the holding period - nil; or
  • (b) (Omitted by No 145 of 1995)
  • (c) in any other case - the business use percentage applicable to the car for the holding period; and
  • R is the amount (if any) of the recipient's payment.

    10(3)   [Definition of components in formula]  

    For the purposes of subsection (2):


    (a) the operating cost of the car during the holding period is the sum of:


    (i) any car expenses (other than insured repair expenses or expenses in respect of registration and insurance) relating to the car incurred during the holding period (whether the expenses are incurred by the provider or by any other person), not including, in a case where the car is leased to the provider, any car expenses incurred by the lessor pursuant to the lease agreement; and

    (ii) so much of any expense paid or payable in respect of the registration of, or insurance in respect of, the car as is attributable to the holding period (whether the expenses are incurred by the provider or by any other person), not including:

    (A) in a case where the car is owned by the provider - any expense incurred before the provider became the owner of the car; or

    (B) in a case where the car is leased to the provider - any expense incurred by the lessor pursuant to the lease agreement; and

    (iii) in a case where the car is owned by the provider:

    (A) the amount of depreciation that is deemed to have been incurred by the provider in respect of the car in respect of the holding period; and

    (B) the amount of interest that is deemed to have been incurred by the provider in respect of the car in respect of the holding period; and

    (iv) in a case where the car is owned by the provider and a non-business accessory was fitted to the car during the period when the car was owned by the provider and remained fitted to the car at a time during the holding period:

    (A) the amount of depreciation that would be deemed to have been incurred by the provider in respect of the accessory in respect of the holding period if the accessory were a car; and

    (B) the amount of interest that would be deemed to have been incurred by the provider in respect of the accessory in respect of the holding period if the accessory were a car; and

    (v) in a case where the car is leased to the provider:

    (A) where sub-subparagraph (B) does not apply - so much of the charges paid or payable under the lease agreement as are attributable to the holding period; or

    (B) where the lessor was entitled to privileges or exemptions in relation to customs duty in respect of a transaction by which the lessor purchased the car - the amount that could reasonably be expected to have been applicable under sub-subparagraph (A) if the lessor had not been entitled to those privileges or exemptions; and

    (vi) in a case where the car is neither owned by, nor leased to, the provider - the amount of depreciation and interest that would be deemed to have been incurred by the provider in respect of the car in respect of the holding period if the car had been purchased by the provider at the time when the provider commenced to hold the car for a consideration equal to the leased car value of the car at that time; and


    (b) (Omitted by No 139 of 1987)


    (c) the amount of the recipient's payment is the sum of:


    (i) in a case where expenses were incurred to the provider or employer during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits by way of consideration for the provision of the car fringe benefits - the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses; and

    (ia) in a case where car expenses in respect of fuel or oil for the car were incurred during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits and:

    (A) the persons incurring those expenses give to the employer, before the declaration date, declarations, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of those expenses; or

    (B) documentary evidence of those expenses is obtained by the persons incurring the expenses and given to the employer before the declaration date;
    the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses; and

    (ii) in a case where:

    (A) car expenses in respect of the car (other than car expenses in respect of fuel or oil for the car) were incurred during the holding period by recipients of the car fringe benefits; and

    (B) documentary evidence of those expenses is obtained by the persons incurring the expenses and given to the employer before the declaration date;
    the amount of those expenses paid by the recipients less any amount paid or payable to the recipients by way of reimbursement of those expenses.

    10(3A)   [Reference to insured repair expense]  

    A reference in subparagraph (3)(a)(i) to an insured repair expense relating to a car is a reference to:


    (a) so much of an expense incurred in respect of repairs to the car as does not exceed an amount:


    (i) received by way of insurance in respect of the repairs by the person incurring the expense;

    (ii) paid by way of insurance in respect of the repairs in discharge of the obligation of the insured to pay the expense;

    (iii) received by way of compensation in respect of the repairs by the person incurring the expense from the person legally responsible for the damage to the car; or

    (iv) paid by way of compensation in respect of the repairs by the person legally responsible for the damage to the car in discharge of the obligation of the person incurring the expense to pay the expense; or


    (b) an expense incurred in respect of repairs to the car:


    (i) by an insurer under a contract of insurance; or

    (ii) by way of compensation by the person legally responsible for the damage to the car.

    10(3B)   [Operating cost of replaced car] 

    Where, in accordance with subsection 162K(2), the identity of a car changes one or more times during the period (in this subsection called the overall holding period ) that, apart from that subsection, would be the holding period, the operating cost of the car during each period (in this subsection called a statutory holding period ) that is a holding period in relation to the car when the car had a separate identity is so much of the amount that would have been the operating cost of the car during the overall holding period (assuming that the identity of the car had not changed during the overall holding period) as is attributable to the statutory holding period.

    10(3C)   [Recipient's payment relating to replaced car]  

    Where, in accordance with subsection 162K(2), the identity of a car changes one or more times during the period (in this subsection called the overall holding period ) that, apart from that subsection, would be the holding period, the recipient's payment in relation to each period (in this subsection called a statutory holding period ) that is a holding period in relation to the car when the car had a separate identity is so much of the amount that would have been the recipient's payment in relation to the overall holding period (assuming that the identity of the car had not changed during the overall holding period) as is attributable to the statutory holding period.

    10(3D)   [Circumstances in which change to identity of car disregarded]  

    In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether:


    (a) an expense is paid or payable in respect of the registration of, or insurance in respect of, a car; or


    (b) a charge is paid or payable under a lease agreement in respect of a car; or


    (c) a lessor of a car is entitled to privileges or exemptions in relation to customs duty in respect of a transaction by which the lessor purchased the car;

    a change, in accordance with subsection 162K(2), to the identity of the car shall be disregarded.

    10(4)   [Time and form of election]  

    An election by an employer under subsection (1) in relation to a year of tax:


    (a) shall be made by notice in writing to the Commissioner; and


    (b) shall be lodged with the Commissioner on or before the declaration date.

    10(5)   [Election deemed not made if lower taxable value results]  

    Where:


    (a) an employer elects that this section apply in relation to all the car fringe benefits in relation to the employer in relation to a year of tax that relate to a particular car; and


    (b) the taxable value, or the aggregate of the taxable values, as the case requires, of the car fringe benefits that relate to the car ascertained under subsection (2) of this section exceeds the taxable value, or the aggregate of the taxable values, as the case requires, that would have been ascertained under section 9 if that election had not been made;

    this Act (other than section 162G) applies, and shall be deemed always to have applied, for the purposes of ascertaining that taxable value, or the aggregate of those taxable values, as the case requires, as if that election had not been made.

    10(6)   [Amendment of assessment]  

    Nothing in section 74 prevents the amendment of an assessment for the purpose of giving effect to subsection (5).

    SECTION 10A   10A   NO REDUCTION OF OPERATING COST IN A LOG BOOK YEAR OF TAX UNLESS LOG BOOK RECORDS AND ODOMETER RECORDS ARE MAINTAINED  


    Where one or more car fringe benefits in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax relate to a car while it was held by a particular person (in this section called the provider ) during a particular period (in this section called the holding period ) in a year of tax that is a log book year of tax of the employer in relation to the car, the employer is entitled to a reduction in the operating cost of the car on account of business journeys undertaken in the car during the holding period if, and only if:


    (a) log book records and odometer records are maintained by or on behalf of the provider for an applicable log book period in relation to the car; and


    (b) odometer records are maintained by or on behalf of the provider for the holding period; and


    (c) if the provider is not the employer - those log book records and odometer records are given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (d) the employer specifies the employer's estimate of the number of business kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period; and


    (e) the employer specifies a percentage as the business use percentage applicable to the car in relation to the provider for the holding period.

    SECTION 10B   10B   NO REDUCTION OF OPERATING COST IN A NON-LOG BOOK YEAR OF TAX UNLESS LOG BOOK RECORDS AND ODOMETER RECORDS ARE MAINTAINED IN LOG BOOK YEAR OF TAX  


    Where one or more car fringe benefits in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax relate to a car while it was held by a particular person (in this section called the ``provider'' ) during a particular period (in this section called the ``holding period'' ) in a year of tax that is not a log book year of tax of the employer in relation to the car, the employer is entitled to a reduction in the operating cost of the car on account of business journeys undertaken during the holding period in the car if, and only if:


    (a) odometer records are maintained by or on behalf of the provider in relation to the car for the holding period and, if the provider is not the employer, are given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (b) the employer specifies the employer's estimate of the number of business kilometres travelled by the car in the holding period; and


    (c) the employer specifies the business use percentage applicable to the car in relation to the provider for the holding period.

    SECTION 10C   10C   NOMINATED BUSINESS PERCENTAGE TO BE REDUCED IF IT EXCEEDS BUSINESS PERCENTAGE ESTABLISHED DURING APPLICABLE LOG BOOK PERIOD OR IF IT IS UNREASONABLE  
    (Repealed by No 145 of 1995)

    SECTION 11   CALCULATION OF DEPRECIATION AND INTEREST  

    11(1A)   [Apportionment of depreciation]  

    For the purposes of this Subdivision, the amount of depreciation that is deemed to have been incurred by a person in respect of a car in respect of the period (in this subsection called the holding period ) during a year of tax while the car was held by the person is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


      DEP × DHP
    DCO
     

    where:

    DEP is the amount of depreciation that is deemed to have been incurred by the person in respect of the car in respect of the year of tax;

    DHP is the number of days in the holding period during which the car was owned by the person; and

    DCO is the number of days in the period in the year of tax during which the car was owned by the person.

    11(1)   [Depreciation formula]  

    For the purposes of this Subdivision, the amount of depreciation that is deemed to have been incurred by a person in respect of a car in respect of a year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    ABC
    D

    where:

    A is:

  • (a) where the car was owned by the person at the beginning of the year of tax - the depreciated value of the car at that time; or
  • (b) in any other case - the cost price of the car to the person;
  • B is the amount worked out for the person and the car using the formula in subsection (1AA).

    C is the number of days in the period in the year of tax during which the car was owned by the person; and

    D is the number of days in the year of tax.

    11(1AA)   [Formula for effective life of car for 2008 and later FBT years]  

    The formula for working out the amount of B for the person and the car for subsection (1) is:


      DV percentage  
      Effective life of the car  

    where:

    DV percentage
    is the percentage applicable in using the diminishing value method (within the meaning of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997) as at the start of the year of tax.

    effective life of the car
    is the number of years in the period specified as the effective life of the car in a determination made by the Commissioner under section 40-100 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 and in effect at the most recent time (before the end of the year of tax) the person became the owner of the car.

    11(1B)   [Apportionment of interest]  

    For the purposes of this Subdivision, the amount of interest that is deemed to have been incurred by a person in respect of a car in respect of the period (in this subsection called the holding period ) during a year of tax while the car was held by the person is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


      INT × DHP
    DCO
     

    where:

    INT is the amount of interest that is deemed to have been incurred by the person in respect of the car in respect of the year of tax;

    DHP is the number of days in the holding period during which the car was owned by the person; and

    DCO is the number of days in the period in the year of tax during which the car was owned by the person.

    11(2)   [Interest formula]  

    For the purposes of this Subdivision, the amount of interest that is deemed to have been incurred by a person in respect of a car in respect of a year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    ABC
    D

    where:

    A is:

  • (a) where the car was owned by the person at the beginning of the year of tax - the depreciated value of the car at that time; or
  • (b) in any other case - the cost price of the car to the person;
  • B is the statutory interest rate in relation to the year of tax;

    C is the number of days in the period in the year of tax during which the car was owned by the person; and

    D is the number of days in the year of tax.

    SECTION 12   DEPRECIATED VALUE  

    12(1)   [Interpretation]  

    In this Subdivision, the depreciated value of a car at a particular time (the relevant time ) is the amount worked out using the formula:


    A - B

    where:

    A is:

  • (a) if the car was owned by the person at the start of 1 July 1986 - the depreciated value worked out under subsection (2); or
  • (b) in any other case - the cost price of the car to the person.
  • B is the total amount of depreciation (if any) that would have been taken to have been incurred by the person in respect of the car for the period after the start of 1 July 1986 and before the relevant time when the person owned the car, if the depreciation taken to have been incurred for that period were calculated in accordance with subsection 11(1).

    12(2)   [Car owned at start of 1 July 1986]  

    The depreciated value of a car owned by a person at the start of 1 July 1986 is the cost price of the car to that person, reduced by the total amount of depreciation that would have been taken to have been incurred by the person in respect of the car for the period before that time when it was owned by the person if:


    (a) the depreciation taken to have been incurred for that period were calculated in accordance with subsection 11(1); and


    (b) each year starting on 1 July were a year of tax.

    SECTION 13   EXPENDITURE TO BE INCREASED IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES  

    13(1)   [Determination of base value, operating cost]  

    The following provisions apply for the purpose of determining the base value of a car for the purposes of section 9 or the operating cost of a car for the purposes of section 10.

    13(2)   [Transactions not at arm's length]  

    Where the amount (if any) of expenditure incurred by a person under a transaction that is not an arm's length transaction is less than the amount (in this subsection referred to as the ``increased amount'' ) of expenditure that could reasonably have been expected to have been incurred by the person under thetransaction if it had been an arm's length transaction, the person shall be deemed, under the transaction, to have incurred the increased amount of expenditure.

    13(3)   [``Expenditure'']  

    The reference in subsection (2) to expenditure does not include a reference to expenditure by a recipient of a car benefit in relation to the car by way of reimbursement of expenditure incurred by another person.

    13(4)   [No expenditure incurred]  

    Where, in a case to which subsection (2) does not apply:


    (a) a person acquires any property, or is provided with any benefit; and


    (b) the person incurs no expenditure in respect of the acquisition of that property or the provision of that benefit;

    the person shall be deemed to have incurred, in respect of the acquisition of that property or the provision of that benefit, expenditure equal to the amount that the person could reasonably be expected to have been required to pay to purchase that property, or obtain the provision of that benefit, on the open market.

    Division 3 - Debt waiver fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Debt waiver benefits  

    SECTION 14   14   DEBT WAIVER BENEFITS  
    Where, at a particular time, a person (in this section referred to as the provider ) waives the obligation of another person (in this section referred to as the recipient ) to pay or repay to the provider an amount, the waiver shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided at that time by the provider to the recipient.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of debt waiver fringe benefits  

    SECTION 15   15   TAXABLE VALUE OF DEBT WAIVER FRINGE BENEFITS  


    Subject to this Part, the taxable value in relation to a year of tax of a debt waiver fringe benefit provided in the year of tax is the amount the payment or repayment of which is waived.

    Division 4 - Loan fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Loan benefits  

    SECTION 16   LOAN BENEFITS  

    16(1)   [Recipient under obligation to repay loan]  

    Where a person (in this subsection referred to as the provider ) makes a loan to another person (in this subsection referred to as the recipient ), the making of the loan shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the recipient and that benefit shall be taken to be provided in respect of each year of tax during the whole or a part of which the recipient is under an obligation to repay the whole or any part of the loan.

    Note:

    A loan benefit that is taken under this subsection to be provided in respect of a year of tax may not be provided as a fringe benefit if:

  • (a) the loan was made in that year of tax or a previous year of tax; and
  • (b) a dividend is not taken to be paid under section 109D of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 in relation to the loan, because of section 109N of that Act.
  • See paragraph (s) of the definition of fringe benefit in subsection 136(1) of this Act.

    16(2)   [Principal unpaid after due date for payment]  

    For the purposes of this Act, where:


    (a) a person (in this subsection referred to as the debtor ) is under an obligation to pay or repay an amount (in this subsection referred to as the principal amount ) to another person (in this subsection referred to as the creditor );


    (b) the principal amount is not the whole or a part of the amount of a loan; and


    (c) after the due date for payment or repayment of the principal amount, the whole or part of the principal amount remains unpaid;

    the following provisions have effect:


    (d) the creditor shall be deemed, immediately after the due date, to have made a loan (in this subsection referred to as the deemed loan ) of the principal amount to the debtor;


    (e) at any time when the debtor is under an obligation to repay any part of the principal amount, the debtor shall be deemed to be under an obligation to repay that part of the deemed loan;


    (f) the deemed loan shall be deemed to have been made:


    (i) if interest accrues on so much of the principal amount as remains from time to time unpaid - at the rate of interest at which that interest accrues; or

    (ii) in any other case - at a nil rate of interest.

    16(3)   [Deferred interest loan]  

    For the purposes of this Act, where a person (in this subsection referred to as the provider ) makes a deferred interest loan (in this subsection referred to as the principal loan ) to another person (in this subsection referred to as the recipient ):


    (a) the provider shall be deemed, at the end of:


    (i) the period of 6 months commencing on the day on which the principal loan was made; and

    (ii) each subsequent period of 6 months;
    (being in either case a period ending on or after 1 July 1986 during the whole of which the recipient is under an obligation to repay the whole or any part of the principal loan) to have made a loan (in this subsection referred to as the deemed loan ) to the recipient of an amount equal to the amount by which the interest (in this subsection referred to as the accrued interest ) that has accrued on the principal loan in respect of that period exceeds the amount (if any) paid in respect of the accrued interest before the end of that period;


    (b) where any part of the accrued interest becomes payable or is paid after the time when the deemed loan is deemed to have been made, the deemed loan shall be reduced accordingly; and


    (c) the deemed loan shall be deemed to have been made at a nil rate of interest.

    16(4)   [Definition of "deferred interest loan"]  

    In subsection (3), deferred interest loan means a loan in respect of which interest is payable at a rate exceeding nil, other than:


    (a) a loan where the whole of the interest is due for payment within 6 months after the loan is made; or


    (b) a loan where:


    (i) the interest is payable by instalments;

    (ii) the intervals between instalments do not exceed 6 months; and

    (iii) the first instalment is due for payment within 6 months after the loan is made.

    16(5)   [No interest payable on loan]  

    For the purposes of this Act, where no interest is payable in respect of a loan, a nil rate of interest shall be taken to be payable in respect of the loan.

    SECTION 17   EXEMPT LOAN BENEFITS  

    17(1)   [Loan as part of business and fixed arm's length interest rate]  

    Where:


    (a) a loan is made by a person who carries on a business that consists of or includes making loans to members of the public; and


    (b) the rate of interest payable in respect of the loan:


    (i) is specified in a document in existence at the time the loan is made;

    (ii) is not less than the rate of interest in respect of a similar arm's length loan made by the person, at or about that time, to a member of the public in the ordinary course of carrying on that business; and

    (iii) cannot be varied;

    the making of the loan is an exempt benefit.

    17(2)   [Loan as part of business and variable arm's length interest rate]  

    Where:


    (a) a loan is made by a person who carries on a business that consists of or includes making loans to members of the public; and


    (b) the rate of interest from time to time payable in respect of the loan in respect of a year of tax is not less than the rate of interest applicable at the time concerned in respect of a similar arm's length loan made by the person, at or about the time the loan referred to in paragraph (a) is made, to a member of the public in the ordinary course of carrying on that business;

    the making of the loan is an exempt benefit in relation to that year of tax.

    17(3)   [Advance to current employee to meet employment-related expenses]  

    Where:


    (a) a loan consists of an advance by an employer to a current employee of the employer in respect of his or her employment;


    (b) the sole purpose of the making of the loan is to enable the employee to meet expenses incurred by the employee:


    (i) in the course of performing the duties of that employment; and

    (ii) not later than 6 months after the loan is made;


    (c) the amount of the loan does not substantially exceed the amount of those expenses that could reasonably be expected to be incurred by the employee; and


    (d) the employee is required:


    (i) to account to the employer, not later than 6 months after the loan is made, for expenses met from the loan; and

    (ii) to repay (whether by set-off or otherwise) any amount not so accounted for;

    the making of the loan is an exempt benefit.

    17(4)   [Exempt loan]  

    Where:


    (a) the making of a loan consisting of an advance by an employer to an employee of the employer constitutes a benefit in respect of the employment of the employee in respect of a year of tax (in this subsection called the current year of tax );


    (b) the sole purpose of the making of the loan is to enable the employee to pay any of the following amounts payable by the employee in respect of accommodation:


    (i) a rental bond;

    (ii) a security deposit in respect of electricity, gas or telephone services;

    (iii) any similar amount;


    (c) the employee is required to repay (whether by set-off or otherwise) the loan not later than 12 months after the loan is made;


    (d) any of the following benefits is provided in, or in respect of, any year of tax to the employee in respect of that employment:


    (i) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is in respect of a lease or licence in respect of that accommodation;

    (ii) a housing benefit where the housing right is in respect of that accommodation;

    (iii) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit is constituted by the subsistence of a lease or licence in respect of that accommodation; and


    (e) either of the following subparagraphs apply:


    (i) by virtue of section 21 or subsection 47(5), the benefit referred to in paragraph (d) is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax referred to in that paragraph;

    (ii) the benefit referred to in paragraph (d) is a fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax referred to in that paragraph and, under section 61C, the taxable value of the fringe benefit is reduced by the extent to which that taxable value is attributable to the subsistence of a lease or licence in respect of the accommodation during a particular period in that year of tax;

    the making of the loan is an exempt benefit in relation to the current year of tax.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of loan fringe benefits  

    SECTION 18   18   TAXABLE VALUE OF LOAN FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value, in relation to a year of tax, of a loan fringe benefit provided in respect of the year of tax is the amount (if any) by which the notional amount of interest in relation to the loan in respect of the year of tax exceeds the amount of interest that has accrued on the loan in respect of the year of tax.

    SECTION 19   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  

    19(1)  


    Where:


    (a) the recipient of a loan fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is an employee of the employer; and


    (b) if the recipient had, on the last day of the period (in this subsection called the loan period ) during the year of tax when the recipient was under an obligation to repay the whole or any part of the loan, incurred and paid unreimbursed interest (in this subsection called the gross interest ), in respect of the loan, in respect of the loan period, equal to the notional amount of interest in relation to the loan in relation to the year of tax - a once-only deduction (in this subsection called the gross deduction ) would, or would if not for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of the gross interest; and


    (ba) the amount (in this subsection called the notional deduction ) calculated in accordance with the formula:


    GD - RD


    where:

    GD is the gross deduction; and

    RD is:

  • (i) if no interest accrued on the loan in respect of the loan period - nil; or
  • (ii) if interest accrued on the loan in respect of the loan period - the amount (if any) that would, or that would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable as a once-only deduction to the recipient under the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 or the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 in respect of that interest if that interest had been incurred and paid by the recipient on the last day of the loan period;

  • exceeds nil; and


    (c) except where the fringe benefit is:


    (i) an employee credit loan benefit in relation to the year of tax; or

    (ii) an employee share loan benefit in relation to the year of tax;
    the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of the loan concerned; and


    (ca) where:


    (i) (Repealed by No 178 of 1999)

    (ii) the loan fringe benefit is a car loan benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (in this subsection also called the holding period ) in the year of tax; and

    (iii) the substantiation rules set out in Division 15 have been complied with in relation to the car in relation to the holding period;
    the following conditions are satisfied:

    (iv) the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a car substantiation declaration for the car for the year of tax;

    (v) in a case where the substantiation rules require log book records or odometer records to be maintained by or on behalf of the recipient in relation to the car - the car substantiation declaration is accompanied by a copy of those documents; and


    (d) if:


    (i) paragraph (ca) does not apply; and

    (ii) the loan fringe benefit is a car loan benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (the holding period ) in the year of tax;
    the recipient gives a declaration to the employer, before the declaration date and in a form approved by the Commissioner, that purports to set out:

    (iii) the holding period; and

    (iv) the number of whole business kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period; and

    (v) the number of whole kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period;

    the taxable value, but for Division 14, of the loan fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    TV - ND

    where:

    TV is the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the loan fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; and

    ND is:


    (e) if neither paragraph (ca) nor (d) applies and paragraph (i) does not apply - the notional deduction; or


    (f) if paragraph (ca) applies and paragraph (i) does not apply - whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) if it would be concluded that the amount of interest that has accrued on the loan in respect of the loan period would have been the same even if the loan fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the loan fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (ii) if subparagraph (i) does not apply - the business use percentage of the notional amount of interest in relation to the loan in relation to the year of tax; or


    (g) where:


    (i) paragraph (d) applies; and

    (ii) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    (iia) paragraph (i) does not apply;
    whichever of the following amounts is the least:

    (iii) the notional deduction;

    (iv) if it would be concluded that the amount of interest that has accrued on the loan in respect of the loan period would have been the same even if the loan fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the loan fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (v) if subparagraph (iv) does not apply - 331/3% of the notional amount of interest in relation to the loan in relation to the year of tax; or


    (h) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)


    (i) if, under subsection 138(3), the loan fringe benefit is deemed to have been provided to the recipient only - the amount calculated in accordance with subsection (5).

    19(2)  


    Where a part of a loan to which a loan fringe benefit relates is used by an employee to:


    (a)purchase a particular car; or


    (b) pay a Division 28 car expense;

    subsection (1) and the definition of car loan benefit in subsection 136(1) apply as if that part of the loan had been a separate loan.

    19(3)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    19(4)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    19(5)  


    For the purposes of paragraph (1)(i) (which applies to a loan fringe benefit that, under subsection 138(3), is deemed to have been provided to an employee only), the amount is calculated in accordance with the formula:


    Unadjusted ND × Employee's percentage of interest

    where:

    employee's percentage of interest
    :

  • (a) is the percentage of the interest held by the employee, during a period (in this subsection called the holding period ) in the year of tax, in the asset or other thing that:
  • (i) is purchased or paid for using all or part of the loan to which the loan fringe benefit relates; and
  • (ii) is applied or used for the purpose of producing assessable income of the employee; and
  • (b) does not include the percentage of the interest held in that asset or other thing by the employee's associate or associates during the holding period.
  • unadjusted ND
    is the amount that would be ascertained as representing the component ND in the formula in subsection (1) if paragraph (1)(i) did not apply in relation to the loan fringe benefit.

    Division 5 - Expense payment fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Expense payment benefits  

    SECTION 20   20   EXPENSE PAYMENT BENEFITS  
    Where a person (in this section referred to as the provider ):


    (a) makes a payment in discharge, in whole or in part, of an obligation of another person (in this section referred to as the recipient ) to pay an amount to a third person in respect of expenditure incurred by the recipient; or


    (b) reimburses another person (in this section also referred to as the recipient ), in whole or in part, in respect of an amount of expenditure incurred by the recipient;

    the making of the payment referred to in paragraph (a), or the reimbursement referred to in paragraph (b), shall be taken to constitute the provision of a benefit by the provider to the recipient.

    SECTION 20A   EXEMPTION - NO-PRIVATE-USE DECLARATION  

    20A(1)   [Exempt benefit]  

    An expense payment fringe benefit that is covered by a no-private-use declaration is an exempt benefit.

    20A(2)   [No-private-use declaration]  

    An employer may make a no-private-use declaration that covers all the employer's expense payment fringe benefits for an FBT year for which the employer will only pay or reimburse so much of the expense that is the subject of the benefit as would result in the taxable value of the benefit being nil.

    20A(3)   [Form of declaration]  

    The declaration must be in a form approved in writing by the Commissioner and be made by the declaration date.

    SECTION 21   21   EXEMPT ACCOMMODATION EXPENSE PAYMENT BENEFITS  
    Where:


    (a) an expense payment benefit is provided in a year of tax to a current employee of an employer in respect of his or her employment; and


    (b) the recipients expenditure is in respect of accommodation for eligible family members; and


    (ba) the accommodation is not provided while the employee is undertaking travel in the course of performing the duties of that employment; and


    (c) the accommodation is required solely because the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from his or her normal residence; and


    (d) the employee satisfies:


    (i) sections 31C (about maintaining an Australian home) and 31D (about the first 12 months); or

    (ii) section 31E (about fly-in fly-out and drive-in drive-out requirements); and


    (e) the employee gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, purporting to set out:


    (i) if the employee satisfies sections 31C and 31D - the matters in subparagraphs 31F(1)(a)(i) to (iii); or

    (ii) if the employee satisfies section 31E - the matters in subparagraphs 31F(1)(b)(i) to (iii);

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    SECTION 22   22   EXEMPT CAR EXPENSE PAYMENT BENEFITS  
    Where:


    (a) an expense payment benefit provided to an employee of an employer in respect of his or her employment is constituted by the reimbursement of the employee, in whole or in part, in respect of an amount of a Division 28 car expense incurred by the employee in relation to a car owned by, or leased to, the employee;


    (b) in a case where the car is leased to the employee - the recipients expenditure is not attributable to a period when the lessor is the provider of a car benefit in relation to the car in relation to the employee;


    (c) the benefit is not in respect of relocation transport;


    (ca) the benefit is not in respect of an employment interview or selection test;


    (cb) the benefit is not associated with:


    (i) a work-related medical examination of the employee;

    (ii) work-related medical screening of the employee;

    (iii) work-related preventative health care of the employee;

    (iv) work-related counselling of the employee or of an associate of the employee; or

    (v) migrant language training of the employee or of an associate of the employee;


    (cc) neither of the following subparagraphs applies in relation to the transport to which the benefit relates:


    (i) the transport was provided wholly or partly to enable the employee, or an associate of the employee, to have a holiday;

    (ii) the transport was provided at a time when the employee had ceased to perform the duties of that employment; and


    (d) the reimbursement is calculated by reference to the distance travelled by the car;

    the expense payment benefit is an exempt benefit.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of expense payment fringe benefits  

    SECTION 22A   TAXABLE VALUE OF IN-HOUSE EXPENSE PAYMENT FRINGE BENEFITS  

    22A(1)   [Valuation of in-house property expense payment fringe benefit]  

    Subject to this Part, the taxable value in relation to a year of tax of an in-house property expense payment fringe benefit (in this subsection called the actual fringe benefit ) provided during the year of tax is the amount that, if:


    (a) the provision of property to which the actual fringe benefit relates were an in-house property fringe benefit (in this subsection called the notional fringe benefit ); and


    (b) the recipients contribution in relation to the notional fringe benefit were equal to the recipients expenditure reduced by whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) the amount of the payment referred to in paragraph 20(a) reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution in relation to the actual fringe benefit;

    (ii) the amount of the reimbursement referred to in paragraph 20(b);

    would have been calculated under section 42 as the taxable value, but for section 44 and Division 14, of the notional fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    22A(2)   [Valuation of in-house residual expense payment fringe benefit]  

    Subject to this Part, the taxable value in relation to a year of tax of an in-house residual expense payment fringe benefit (in this subsection called the actual fringe benefit ) provided during the year of tax is the amount that, if:


    (a) the provision of the residual benefit to which the actual fringe benefit relates were an in-house residual fringe benefit (in this subsection called the notional fringe benefit ); and


    (b) the recipients contribution in relation to the notional fringe benefit were equal to the recipients expenditure reduced by whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) the amount of the payment referred to in paragraph 20(a) reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution in relation to the actual fringe benefit;

    (ii) the amount of the reimbursement referred to in paragraph 20(b);

    would have been calculated under whichever of sections 48 and 49 is applicable as the taxable value, but for section 52 and Division 14, of the notional fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    22A(3)   [Application of sec 49 to subsec (2)]  

    For the purposes of subsection (2), section 49 has effect as if:


    (a) "the current identical benefit in relation to" were omitted from paragraph 49(a);


    (b) the reference in paragraph 49(b) to the recipients current benefit were a reference to the recipients overall benefit; and


    (c) "insofar as it relates to the recipients current benefit" were omitted from section 49.

    22A(4)   [Expenditure re 2 or more benefits same]  

    Where the recipients expenditure in relation to each of 2 or more in-house expense payment fringe benefits (whether or not in relation to the same year of tax) is the same expenditure, this Act applies, and shall be deemed to have applied, as if all the payments or reimbursements to which those fringe benefits relate had been made at the time when the first of those payments or reimbursements was made and not otherwise.

    22A(5)   [Amendment of assessments]  

    Nothing in section 74 prevents the amendment of an assessment for the purpose of giving effect to subsection (4).

    SECTION 23   23   TAXABLE VALUE OF EXTERNAL EXPENSE PAYMENT FRINGE BENEFITS  


    Subject to this Part, the taxable value in relation to a year of tax of an external expense payment fringe benefit provided during the year of tax is the amount of the payment referred to in paragraph 20(a), or the reimbursement referred to in paragraph 20(b), as the case requires, reduced, in a case to which paragraph 20(a) applies, by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 24   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  

    24(1)  


    Where:


    (a) the recipient of an expense payment fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is an employee of the employer; and


    (b) if the recipient had, at the time when the recipients expenditure was incurred, incurred and paid unreimbursed expenditure (in this subsection called the gross expenditure ), in respect of the same matter in respect of which the recipients expenditure was incurred, equal to:


    (i) in the case of an in-house expense payment fringe benefit - the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or

    (ii) in the case of an external expense payment fringe benefit - the amount of the recipients expenditure;
    a once-only deduction (in this subsection called the gross deduction ) would, or would if not for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of the gross expenditure; and


    (ba) the amount (in this subsection called the notional deduction ) calculated in accordance with the formula:


    GD - RD


    where:
  • GD is the gross deduction; and
  • RD is:
  • (i) if there is no recipients portion in relation to the expense payment fringe benefit - nil; or
  • (ii) if there is a recipients portion in relation to the expense payment fringe benefit - the amount (if any) that would, or that would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable as a once-only deduction to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of the recipients expenditure (assuming that any payment of that expenditure by the recipient had been paid by the recipient at the time when the recipients expenditure was incurred);

  • exceeds nil; and


    (c) in the case of an expense payment fringe benefit that is not an eligible incidental travel expense payment benefit or an eligible overtime meal expense payment benefit:


    (ia) where the recipients expenditure is in respect of fuel or oil for a motor vehicle owned by, or leased to, the recipient:

    (A) where the fringe benefit is an eligible small expense payment fringe benefit or an undocumentable expense payment fringe benefit - substitute documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is maintained by or on behalf of the provider and, if the provider is not the employer, that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; or

    (B) in any case - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; or

    (C) in any case - the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of the recipients expenditure; or

    (i) where subparagraph (ia) does not apply and the fringe benefit is an undocumentable expense payment fringe benefit or an eligible small expense payment fringe benefit:

    (A) documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; or

    (B) substitute documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is maintained by or on behalf of the provider and, if the provider is not the employer, that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; or

    (ii) in any other case - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (d) where the expense payment fringe benefit is an extended travel expense payment benefit (other than an international aircrew expense payment benefit) - the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a travel diary in relation to the travel undertaken by the recipient to which the fringe benefit relates; and


    (e) except where the expense payment fringe benefit is:


    (i) an exclusive employee expense payment benefit; or

    (ia) covered by a recurring fringe benefit declaration (see section 152A); or

    (ii) an eligible overtime meal expense payment benefit; or

    (iii) an eligible incidental travel expense payment benefit; or

    (iv) an extended travel expense payment benefit; or

    (v) a car expense payment benefit;
    the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of the recipients expenditure; and


    (ea) where:


    (i) the expense payment fringe benefit is a car expense payment benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (in this section called the holding period ) in the year of tax; and

    (ii) the substantiation rules set out in Division 15 have been complied with in relation to the car in relation to the holding period;
    the following conditions are satisfied:

    (iii) the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a car substantiation declaration for the car for the year of tax;

    (iv) in a case where the substantiation rules require log book records or odometer records to be maintained by or on behalf of the recipient in relation to the car - the car substantiation declaration is accompanied by a copy of those documents; and


    (f) if:


    (i) paragraph (ea) does not apply; and

    (ii) the expense payment fringe benefit is a car expense payment benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (the holding period ) in the year of tax;
    the recipient gives a declaration to the employer, before the declaration date and in a form approved by the Commissioner, that purports to set out:

    (iii) the holding period; and

    (iv) the number of whole business kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period; and

    (v) the number of whole kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period;

    the taxable value, but for Division 14, of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    TV - ND

    where:

    TV
    is the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; and

    ND
    is:


    (g) if neither paragraph (ea) nor paragraph (f) applies and paragraph (l) does not apply - the notional deduction; or


    (h) if paragraph (ea) applies and paragraph (l) does not apply - whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) if it would be concluded that the amount of the providers portion would have been the same even if the recipients expenditure were not incurred in producing assessable income of the recipient - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (ii) if subparagraph (i) does not apply:

    (A) in the case of an in-house expense payment fringe benefit - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or

    (B) in the case of an external expense payment fringe benefit - the business use percentage of the recipients expenditure; or


    (j) where:


    (i) paragraph (f) applies; and

    (ii) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    (iia) paragraph (l) does not apply;
    whichever of the following amounts is the least:

    (iii) the notional deduction;

    (iv) if it would be concluded that the amount of the providers portion would have been the same even if the recipients expenditure were not incurred in producing assessable income of the recipient - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (v) if subparagraph (iv) does not apply:

    (A) in the case of an in-house expense payment fringe benefit - 331/3% of the amount that but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the expense payment fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or

    (B) in the case of an external expense payment fringe benefit - 331/3% of the recipients expenditure; or


    (k) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)


    (l) if, under subsection 138(3), the expense payment fringe benefit is deemed to have been provided to the recipient only - the amount calculated in accordance with subsection (9).

    24(2)  
    For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a fringe benefit, where the recipient:


    (a) while undertaking travel referred to in paragraph (1)(d), engages in an activity in the course of producing assessable income of the recipient; and


    (b) does not make, as mentioned in the definition of travel diary in subsection 136(1), an entry relating to the activity, being an entry of the kind referred to in that definition;

    the activity shall be deemed not to have been engaged in by the recipient in the course of producing assessable income.

    24(3)  
    Where the sum of:


    (a) the recipients expenditure in respect of a small expense payment fringe benefit in relation to an employee in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax; and


    (b) the total of the recipients expenditure in respect of all other small expense payment fringe benefits in relation to the employer in relation to the employee in relation to the year of tax, being fringe benefits provided before the fringe benefit referred to in paragraph (a);

    does not exceed $200, the fringe benefit referred to in paragraph (a) is an eligible small expense payment fringe benefit.

    24(3A)  


    For the purposes of this section, where the Commissioner is satisfied, having regard to the nature of the recipients expenditure in respect of an expense payment fringe benefit, that it would be unreasonable to expect the recipient to have obtained documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure, the expense payment fringe benefit shall be deemed to be, and always to have been, an undocumentable expense payment fringe benefit.

    24(4)  


    For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the part of a petty cash book or similar document that sets out the particulars that would be set out in documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure (other than particulars of the date on which the documentary evidence was made out) is taken to be substitute documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure. The entry must be in English.

    24(5)  
    Where:


    (a) the recipients expenditure in relation to each of 2 or more expense payment fringe benefits (whether or not in relation to the same year of tax) is the same expenditure; and


    (b) paragraph (1)(b) applies in relation to the recipients expenditure;

    this Act applies, and shall be deemed always to have applied, as if all the payments or reimbursements to which those fringe benefits relate had been made at the time when the first of those payments or reimbursements was made and not otherwise, and nothing in section 74 prevents the amendment of an assessment for the purpose of giving effect to this subsection.

    24(6)  


    For the purposes of the application of this section to an in-house expense payment fringe benefit, a reference to the recipients contribution in relation to the fringe benefit is a reference to the amount ascertained under whichever of paragraphs 22A(1)(b) or (2)(b) is applicable.

    24(7)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    24(8)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    24(9)  


    For the purposes of paragraph (1)(l) (which applies to an expense payment fringe benefit that, under subsection 138(3), is deemed to have been provided to an employee only), the amount is calculated in accordance with the formula:


    Unadjusted ND × Employee's percentage of interest

    where:

    employee's percentage of interest
    :

  • (a) is the percentage of the interest held by the employee, during a period (in this subsection called the holding period ) in the year of tax, in the asset or other thing that:
  • (i) relates to the matter in respect of which the expense payment fringe benefit is provided; and
  • (ii) is applied or used for the purpose of producing assessable income of the employee; and
  • (b) does not include the percentage of the interest held in that asset or other thing by the employee's associate or associates during the holding period.
  • unadjusted ND
    is the amount that would be ascertained as representing the component ND in the formula in subsection (1) if paragraph (1)(l) did not apply in relation to the expense payment fringe benefit.

    Division 6 - Housing fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Housing benefits  

    SECTION 25   25   HOUSING BENEFITS  
    The subsistence during the whole or a part of a year of tax of a housing right granted by a person (in this section referred to as the provider ) to another person (in this section referred to as the recipient ) shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the recipient in respect of the year of tax.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of housing fringe benefits  

    SECTION 26   TAXABLE VALUE OF NON-REMOTE HOUSING FRINGE BENEFITS  

    26(1)  


    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of a housing fringe benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee in relation to a year of tax is:


    (a) where the recipients unit of accommodation is not located in a State or internal Territory - so much of the market value of the recipients current housing right as exceeds the recipients rent;


    (b) where:


    (i) paragraph (a) does not apply;

    (ii) the recipients unit of accommodation is a caravan or mobile home or is in a hotel, motel, hostel or guesthouse; and

    (iii) during the whole or a part of the tenancy period, the provider carried on a business consisting of or including the provision to outsiders, in respect of identical or similar caravans or mobile homes or in respect of identical or similar units of accommodation in the hotel, motel, hostel or guesthouse, of leases or licences that are identical or similar to the recipients overall housing right;
    the amount calculated in accordance with the formula AB,

    where:

    A is the market value of the recipients current housing right; and

    B is:


    (iv) in a case where, if the fringe benefit were not a housing fringe benefit, it would be an in-house residual fringe benefit - 0.75; and

    (v) in any other case - 1;
    reduced by the recipients rent; and


    (c) in any other case - the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    AB
    C


    where:
  • A is the statutory annual value of the recipients current housing right;
  • B is the number of whole days in the tenancy period; and
  • C is the number of days in the year of tax;
     
    reduced by the recipients rent.
  • 26(2)  
    For the purposes of the application of subsection (1) in relation to a housing fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax (in this subsection referred to as the current year of tax ), the statutory annual value of the recipients current housing right is:


    (a) if the current year of tax is a base year of tax in relation to the recipients current housing right - the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    AB
    C


    where:
  • A is the market value of the recipients current housing right;
  • B is the number of days in the current year of tax; and
  • C is the number of whole days in the tenancy period; and

  • (b) in any other case - the amount ascertained in accordance with the formula AB,
    where:

    A is:


    (i) if the year of tax immediately preceding the current year of tax was a base year of tax for the purpose of calculating the taxable value of:

    (A) a housing fringe benefit in relation to the employer in respect of the recipients overall housing right or in respect of an equivalent housing right; or

    (B) each of 2 or more such housing fringe benefits;
    the statutory annual value for the purposes of calculating the taxable value of the fringe benefit referred to in sub-subparagraph (A) or the weighted average of the statutory annual values for the purpose of calculating the taxable values of the housing fringe benefits referred to in sub-subparagraph (B) (those statutory annual values being weighted on the basis of the lengths of the respective periods during that preceding year of tax during which the housing rights to which those housing fringe benefits relate subsisted), as the case may be; and

    (ii) in any other case - the statutory annual value for the purpose of calculating the taxable values of housing fringe benefits in relation to the employer in relation to the year of tax immediately preceding the current year of tax, being housing fringe benefits in respect of the recipients overall housing right or equivalent housing rights; and
    B is the indexation factor in respect of the current year of tax in respect of the State or Territory in which the recipients unit of accommodation is situated.

    26(3)  
    For the purposes of the application of subsection (2) in relation to a housing fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax (in this subsection referred to as the current year of tax ), the current year of tax is a base year of tax in relation to the recipients current housing right if:


    (a) (Repealed by No 178 of 1999)


    (aa) the employer elects that the current year of tax be treated as a base year of tax in relation to the recipients overall housing right or an equivalent housing right;


    (b) there was no housing fringe benefit, in relation to the employer in relation to the year of tax immediately preceding the current year of tax, in respect of the recipients overall housing right or in respect of an equivalent housing right; or


    (c) the following conditions are satisfied:


    (i) in relation to each of the 9 years of tax immediately preceding the current year of tax there was a housing fringe benefit in relation to the employer in respect of the recipients overall housing right or an equivalent housing right;

    (ii) none of those 9 years of tax was a base year of tax for the purpose of calculating the taxable value of a housing fringe benefit to which subparagraph (i) applies.

    26(4)  
    For the purposes of this section:


    (a) 2 or more housing rights shall be taken to be included in the same class of housing rights if:


    (i) the housing rights are in respect of the same unit of accommodation; and

    (ii) the conditions (other than as to duration or consideration) of the housing rights are the same or substantially the same; and


    (b) a housing right shall be taken to be equivalent to another housing right if each of those housing rights is included in the same class of housing rights.

    26(5)  
    For the purposes of this section, where a material alteration to a unit of accommodation results in an increase or decrease of not less than 10% in the market value of the right to occupy or use the unit:


    (a) the unit of accommodation after the alteration shall be deemed to be a different unit of accommodation from the unit of accommodation before the alteration; and


    (b) if the alteration occurs during the subsistence of a housing right granted to a person in respect of the unit of accommodation, that housing right, as it subsists after the alteration, shall be deemed to have been granted to the person in respect of the unit of accommodation as it existed after the alteration and to have been so granted in the same circumstances as the first-mentioned housing right.

    26(6)  
    A reference in subsection (5) to a material alteration to a unit of accommodation is a reference to:


    (a) additions or improvements made to, or other work carried out in relation to;


    (b) any damage to; or


    (c) the addition of facilities to, or the removal of facilities from;

    the unit of accommodation or any building, place or facility associated with the occupation or use of the unit of accommodation.

    26(7)  


    An election by an employer under paragraph (3)(aa) in relation to a year of tax:


    (a) shall be made by notice in writing to the Commissioner; and


    (b) shall be lodged with the Commissioner on or before the declaration date in relation to the year of tax.

    SECTION 27   DETERMINATION OF MARKET VALUE OF HOUSING RIGHT  

    27(1)   [Right to reimbursement for certain expenditure]  

    For the purposes of determining the market value of the recipients current housing right in relation to a housing fringe benefit, where the recipient is entitled, pursuant to the housing right, to require a second person to:


    (a) make a payment in discharge, in whole or in part, of an obligation of the recipient to pay an amount to a third person in respect of expenditure incurred by the recipient; or


    (b) to reimburse the recipient, in whole or in part, in respect of an amount of expenditure incurred by the recipient;

    that entitlement shall be disregarded.

    27(2)   [Housing right subject to onerous conditions]  

    For the purposes of determining the market value of the recipients current housing right in relation to a housing fringe benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee, any onerous conditions that are attached to the housing right and that relate to his or her employment shall be disregarded.

    SECTION 28   INDEXATION FACTOR FOR VALUATION PURPOSES - NON-REMOTE HOUSING  

    28(1)  


    For the purposes of section 26, the indexation factor in respect of a year of tax (in this subsection referred to as the "current year of tax" ) in respect of a State or Territory is the number (calculated to 3 decimal places) ascertained, as at the date on which the rent index number in respect of the State or Territory for the December quarter immediately preceding the current year of tax was first published, by dividing the sum of:


    (a) the rent index number in respect of the State or Territory in respect of the December quarter immediately preceding the current year of tax; and


    (b) the rent index numbers in respect of the State or Territory in respect of the 3 quarters that immediately preceded that quarter;

    by the sum of:


    (c) the rent index number in respect of the State or Territory in respect of the December quarter immediately preceding the year of tax that next preceded the current year of tax; and


    (d) the rent index numbers in respect of the State or Territory in respect of the 3 quarters that immediately preceded the last-mentioned quarter.

    28(2)  
    Subject to subsection (3), if at any time, whether before or after the commencement of this section, the Australian Statistician has published or publishes a rent index number in respect of a State or Territory in respect of a quarter in substitution for a rent index number in respect of the State or Territory previously published in respect of that quarter, the publication of the later rent index number shall be disregarded for the purposes of this section.

    28(3)  


    If at any time, whether before or after the commencement of this section, the Australian Statistician has changed or changes the index reference period for the rent sub-group of the Consumer Price Index, then, for the purposes of the application of this section after the change took place or takes place, regard shall be had only to the index numbers published in terms of the new index reference period.

    28(4)  
    Where the factor ascertained in accordance with subsection (1) in relation to a year of tax would, if it were calculated to 4 decimal places, end with a number greater than 4, the factor ascertained in accordance with that subsection in relation to that year of tax shall be taken to be the factor calculated to 3 decimal places in accordance with that subsection and increased by 0.001.

    28(5)  
    For the purposes of this Subdivision:


    (a) the Jervis Bay Territory shall be deemed to be part of the State of New South Wales; and


    (b) the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands shall be deemed to be part of the Northern Territory.

    SECTION 29   29   TAXABLE VALUE OF REMOTE AREA ACCOMMODATION  
    (Repealed by No 52 of 2000)

    SECTION 29A   29A   INDEXATION FACTOR FOR VALUATION PURPOSES - REMOTE AREA ACCOMMODATION  
    (Repealed by No 52 of 2000)

    Division 7 - Living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Living-away-from-home allowance benefits  

    SECTION 30   LIVING-AWAY-FROM-HOME ALLOWANCE BENEFITS  

    30(1)  
    Where:


    (a) at a particular time, in respect of the employment of an employee of an employer, the employer pays an allowance to the employee; and


    (b) it would be concluded that the whole or a part of the allowance is in the nature of compensation to the employee for:


    (i) additional expenses (not being deductible expenses) incurred by the employee during a period; or

    (ii) additional expenses (not being deductible expenses) incurred by the employee, and other additional disadvantages to which the employee is subject, during a period;
    by reason that the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from his or her normal residence;

    the payment of the whole, or of the part, as the case may be, of the allowance constitutes a benefit provided by the employer to the employee at that time.

    30(2)  


    If:


    (a) at a particular time after 10 October 1991, in respect of the employment of an employee of an employer, the employer pays an allowance to the employee; and


    (b) the employee's usual place of employment is on an oil rig, or other petroleum or gas installation, at sea; and


    (c) the employee is provided with residential accommodation at or near that usual place of employment; and


    (d) the allowance is expressed to be paid as a living-away-from-home allowance; and


    (e) no part of the allowance is covered by subsection (1); and


    (f) it would be concluded that the whole or a part of the allowance is in the nature of compensation to the employee for disadvantages to which the employee is subject, during a period, by reason that the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from his or her usual place of residence;

    the payment of the whole of the allowance constitutes a benefit provided by the employer to the employee at that time.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefits  

    SECTION 31   TAXABLE VALUE - EMPLOYEE MAINTAINS A HOME IN AUSTRALIA  

    31(1)  
    This section applies to a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit covered by subsection 30(1) in relation to a year of tax to the extent that the employee satisfies all of the following for the fringe benefit and the period to which it relates:


    (a) section 31C (about maintaining an Australian home);


    (b) section 31D (about the first 12 months);


    (c) section 31F (about declarations).

    31(2)  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of the fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount of the fringe benefit reduced by:


    (a) any exempt accommodation component; and


    (b) any exempt food component.

    31(3)  
    Paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to the extent that the fringe benefit relates to a period during which the employee resumes living at his or her normal residence.

    31(4)  
    Neither paragraph (2)(a) nor (b) applies to the extent that the period to which the fringe benefit relates happens while the 12-month period referred to in subsection 31D(1) is paused.

    Note:

    The employer may pause that 12-month period (see paragraph 31D(2)(a)).

    SECTION 31A   TAXABLE VALUE - FLY-IN FLY-OUT AND DRIVE-IN DRIVE-OUT EMPLOYEES  

    31A(1)  
    This section applies to a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit covered by subsection 30(1) in relation to a year of tax to the extent that the employee satisfies all of the following for the fringe benefit and the period to which it relates:


    (a) the requirement that the employee has residential accommodation at or near his or her usual place of employment;


    (b) section 31E (about extra requirements for these employees);


    (c) section 31F (about declarations).

    31A(2)  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of the fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount of the fringe benefit reduced by:


    (a) any exempt accommodation component; and


    (b) any exempt food component.

    SECTION 31B   TAXABLE VALUE - ANY OTHER CASE  

    31B(1)  
    This section applies to a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit in relation to a year of tax to the extent that neither section 31 nor 31A applies to the fringe benefit and the period to which it relates.

    31B(2)  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of the fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount of the fringe benefit.

    Subdivision C - Related provisions  

    SECTION 31C   31C   MAINTAINING A HOME IN AUSTRALIA  


    The employee satisfies this section if:


    (a) the place in Australia where the employee usually resides when in Australia:


    (i) is a unit of accommodation in which the employee or the employee's spouse has an ownership interest (within the meaning of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997); and

    (ii) continues to be available for the employee's immediate use and enjoyment during the period that the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from it; and


    (b) it is reasonable to expect that the employee will resume living at that place when that period ends.

    SECTION 31D   FIRST 12 MONTHS EMPLOYEE IS REQUIRED TO LIVE AWAY FROM HOME  

    31D(1)  
    The employee satisfies this section if the fringe benefit relates only to all or part of the first 12 months that the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from the place in Australia where he or she usually resides when in Australia.

    31D(2)  
    Each of the following paragraphs applies for the purposes of subsection (1):


    (a) the employer may pause the 12-month period;


    (b) start a separate 12-month period if:


    (i) the employer later requires the employee to live at another location for the purposes of that employment; and

    (ii) it would be unreasonable to expect the employee to commute to that other location from an earlier location for which the employer provided a benefit of the same kind to the employee;


    (c) other changes in the nature of that employment are irrelevant;


    (d) treat as one employer any of the employee's earlier employers that is or has been an associate of the current employer.

    SECTION 31E   31E   FLY-IN FLY-OUT AND DRIVE-IN DRIVE-OUT REQUIREMENTS  


    The employee satisfies this section if:


    (a) the employee, on a regular and rotational basis:


    (i) works for a number of days and has a number of days off (but not the same days in consecutive weeks); and

    (ii) on completion of the working days, travels from his or her usual place of employment to his or her normal residence and, on completion of the days off, returns to that usual place of employment; and


    (b) the basis of work described in paragraph (a) is customary for employees performing similar duties in that industry; and


    (c) it would be unreasonable to expect the employee to travel on a daily basis on work days between:


    (i) his or her usual place of employment; and

    (ii) his or her normal residence;

    having regard to the location of those places; and


    (d) it is reasonable to expect that the employee will resume living in his or her normal residence when the duties of that employment no longer require him or her to live away from it.

    SECTION 31F   DECLARATIONS  

    31F(1)  
    The employee satisfies this section if the employee gives the employer a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, purporting to set out:


    (a) for a fringe benefit to which section 31 (about employees who maintain an Australian home) applies:


    (i) the address of the place in Australia where the employee usually resides when in Australia; and

    (ii) that section 31C is satisfied for that place; and

    (iii) the address of each place where the employee actually resided during the period to which the benefit relates; or


    (b) for a fringe benefit to which section 31A (about employees who fly-in fly-out or drive-in drive-out) applies:


    (i) the address of the employee's usual place of residence; and

    (ii) that paragraph 31E(d) is satisfied for the employee's normal residence; and

    (iii) the address of each place where the employee actually resided during the period to which the benefit relates.

    31F(2)  
    The employee must give the employer the declaration before the declaration date for the year of tax during which the benefit was provided.

    SECTION 31G   SUBSTANTIATING RELATED EXPENSES  

    31G(1)  
    This section applies to the following expenses incurred by the employee:


    (a) an expense for the accommodation of eligible family members during the period to which a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit relates;


    (b) an expense for food or drink for eligible family members during the period to which a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit relates, if the total of those food or drink expenses for that period exceeds the amount the Commissioner considers reasonable.

    31G(2)  
    The employee substantiates the expense if the employee:


    (a) before the declaration date for the year of tax during which the fringe benefit was provided, gives the employer:


    (i) documentary evidence of the expense, or a copy; or

    (ii) a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, purporting to set out information about the expense; and


    (b) if the employee gives a declaration under subparagraph (a)(ii) - retains documentary evidence of the expense for a period of 5 years starting at that declaration date.

    Note:

    Substantiating expenses increases the exempt accommodation component, and exempt food component, for working out the taxable value of the relevant fringe benefit.

    SECTION 31H   EXEMPT FOOD COMPONENT  

    31H(1)  
    The exempt food component , in relation to a living-away-from-home allowance fringe benefit, is so much of the result of subsection (2) as is equal to the total of the expenses that:


    (a) are incurred by the employee for food or drink for eligible family members during the period to which the fringe benefit relates; and


    (b) if section 31G applies to the expenses - are substantiated under that section.

    31H(2)  
    Work out the result of the following:

    Food component - Applicable statutory food total

    where:

    applicable statutory food total
    means the total of the statutory food amounts for eligible family members for the period to which the fringe benefit relates, reduced (but not below zero) by any amount that:


    (a) might reasonably be expected to be the total normal food or drink expenses for those eligible family members had they remained living in their normal residence during that period; and


    (b) was taken into account in working out the food component.

    Division 8 - Airline transport fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Airline transport benefits  

    SECTION 32   32   AIRLINE TRANSPORT BENEFITS  
    (Repealed by No 88 of 2013)

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of airline transport fringe benefits  

    SECTION 33   33   TAXABLE VALUE OF AIRLINE TRANSPORT FRINGE BENEFITS  
    (Repealed by No 88 of 2013)

    SECTION 34   34   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  
    (Repealed by No 88 of 2013)

    Division 9 - Board fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Board benefits  

    SECTION 35   35   BOARD BENEFITS  
    Where, at a particular time, a person (in this section referred to as the provider ) provides a board meal to another person (in this section referred to as the recipient ), the provision of the meal shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the recipient at that time.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of board fringe benefits  

    SECTION 36   36   TAXABLE VALUE OF BOARD FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of a board fringe benefit in relation to a year of tax is:


    (a) in a case where the recipient had attained the age of 12 years before the beginning of the year of tax - $2.00; or


    (b) in any other case - $1.00;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 37   37   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  


    Where:


    (a) the recipient of a board fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is an employee of the employer;


    (b) if the recipient had, at the time when the benefit was provided, incurred and paid unreimbursed expenditure (in this section called the ``gross expenditure'' ), in respect of the provision of the recipients meal, equal to the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the board fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax - a deduction (in this section called the ``gross deduction'' ) would, or would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient section 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 in respect of the whole or a part of the gross expenditure; and


    (c) the amount (in this section called the ``notional deduction'' ) calculated in accordance with the formula:


    GD - RD


    where:
    GD is the gross deduction; and
    RD is:
  • (i) if there is no recipients contribution in relation to the board fringe benefit - nil; or
  • (ii) if there is a recipients contribution in relation to the board fringe benefit equal to, or calculated by reference to, an amount of consideration paid by the recipient to the provider or to the employer in respect of the provision of the recipients meal - the amount (if any) that would, or that would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient section 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 in respect of the whole or a part of that consideration if that consideration had been incurred and paid by the recipient at the time when the benefit was provided;

  • exceeds nil;

    the amount that, but for this section and Division 14, would be the taxable value of that fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax shall be reduced by the notional deduction.

    Division 9A - Meal entertainment  

    Subdivision A - Meal entertainment  

    SECTION 37A   KEY PRINCIPLE  


    An employer may elect that this Division will apply to the employer for an FBT year. If the employer does this, the taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits provided to the employer's employees and associates of those employees by the employer will either be half the expenses incurred for the FBT year by the employer in providing meal entertainment benefits or, if the employer makes a further election, an amount worked out based on a 12 week register kept by the employer.

    SECTION 37AA   37AA   DIVISION ONLY APPLIES IF ELECTION MADE  


    An employer may elect that this Division applies to the employer for an FBT year.

    SECTION 37AB   37AB   EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS TO BE EXCLUDED  


    For the purposes of this Division any reference to expenses or expenditure in relation to meal entertainment or meal entertainment benefits excludes any contribution from an employee or an associate of an employee that is not subject to reimbursement by the employer.

    SECTION 37AC   37AC   MEAL ENTERTAINMENT BENEFITS  


    If, at a particular time:


    (a) an employer (the provider ) to whom this Division applies provides meal entertainment to another person (the recipient ); and


    (b) the meal entertainment is not provided under a salary packaging arrangement;

    the provision of the meal entertainment is a meal entertainment benefit provided by the provider to the recipient at that time.

    SECTION 37AD   37AD   MEANING OF PROVISION OF MEAL ENTERTAINMENT  


    A reference to the provision of meal entertainment is a reference to the provision of:


    (a) entertainment by way of food or drink; or


    (b) accommodation or travel in connection with, or for the purpose of facilitating, entertainment to which paragraph (a) applies; or


    (c) the payment or reimbursement of expenses incurred in providing something covered by paragraph (a) or (b);

    whether or not:


    (d) business discussions or business transactions occur; or


    (e)in connection with the working of overtime or otherwise in connection with the performance of the duties of any office or employment; or


    (f) for the purposes of promotion or advertising; or


    (g) at or in connection with a seminar.

    SECTION 37AE   37AE   FRINGE BENEFITS ONLY ARISE IF EMPLOYER IS PROVIDER  


    No meal entertainment fringe benefit arises where the employer in relation to whom the benefit would otherwise arise is not the provider of the benefit.

    SECTION 37AF   37AF   NO OTHER FRINGE BENEFITS ARISE IF ELECTION MADE  


    If a meal entertainment fringe benefit arises in respect of the provision of meal entertainment, no other fringe benefit arises in relation to any person in respect of the provision of the meal entertainment.

    SECTION 37AG   37AG   SOME BENEFITS STILL ARISE  


    To avoid doubt, sections 37AE and 37AF do not prevent a fringe benefit in relation to an employer arising under any provision of this Act where the employer is not the provider of the benefit.

    Subdivision B - 50/50 split method of valuing meal entertainment  

    SECTION 37B   KEY PRINCIPLE  


    If an employer elects that this Division applies, then (unless the employer elects that Subdivision C applies) the taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits provided to the employer's employees and associates of those employees by the employer is half the expenses incurred for the FBT year by the employer in providing meal entertainment benefits.

    SECTION 37BA   37BA   TAXABLE VALUE USING 50/50 SPLIT METHOD  


    If this Division applies to an employer for an FBT year then, unless the employer elects that Subdivision C applies, the total taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits of the employer for the FBT year is 50% of the expenses incurred by the employer in providing meal entertainment for the FBT year.
    Note:

    This means that the employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount (see section 5C) for the FBT year will include 50% of the total expenses incurred by the employer for the provision of meal entertainment to all persons in the FBT year.

    Subdivision C - 12 week register method  

    SECTION 37C   KEY PRINCIPLE  


    If an employer elects that this Subdivision applies, the taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits is to be calculated by reference to a 12 week register kept by the employer.

    SECTION 37CA   37CA   ELECTION BY EMPLOYER  


    An employer who elects that this Division applies may elect also that this Subdivision applies to meal entertainment provided by the employer for an FBT year if the employer has a valid meal entertainment register for that year.

    SECTION 37CB   TAXABLE VALUE USING 12 WEEK REGISTER METHOD  

    37CB(1)   [Taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits]  

    If the employer elects that this Subdivision applies for an FBT year then, despite any other provision of this Act, the taxable value of meal entertainment fringe benefits for the employer for the FBT year is worked out using the formula:


    Total meal entertainment expenditure  ×  Register percentage

    Note:

    This means that the employer's aggregate fringe benefits amount (see section 5C) for the FBT year will include a proportion of the expenses incurred by the employer for the provision of meal entertainment for all persons in the FBT year. The proportion is worked out on the basis of the 12 week register.

    37CB(2)   [Register percentage]  

    The register percentage is the percentage worked out using the formula:


    Total value of meal entertainment
                      fringe benefits                  
    Total value of meal entertainment
    × 100%

    where:

    total value of meal entertainment fringe benefits means the total value of meal entertainment fringe benefits that are provided by the employer in the 12 week period covered by the employer's register.

    total value of meal entertainment means the total value of meal entertainment provided by the employer during the 12 week period covered by the register.

    37CB(3)   [Total meal entertainment expenditure]  

    The total meal entertainment expenditure is the total of expenses incurred by the employer in providing meal entertainment for the FBT year.

    SECTION 37CC   CHOOSING THE 12 WEEK PERIOD FOR A REGISTER  

    37CC(1)   [Period register must be kept]  

    The register must be kept for a continuous period of at least 12 weeks throughout which meal entertainment is provided by the employer.

    37CC(2)   [Period must be representative]  

    The period for which the register is kept must be representative of the first FBT year for which it is valid.

    37CC(3)   [Register not valid]  

    If the register does not meet these conditions it is not valid.

    SECTION 37CD   FBT YEARS FOR WHICH REGISTER IS VALID  

    37CD(1)   12 week period in one FBT year.  

    If the 12 week period begins and ends in the same FBT year, the register is valid for that FBT year and, subject to subsection (3), for each of the 4 FBT years immediately following that year.

    37CD(2)   12 week period over 2 FBT years.  

    If the 12 week period begins in one FBT year and ends in another FBT year, the register is only valid for the second FBT year and, subject to subsection (3), for each of the 4 FBT years immediately following that year.

    37CD(3)   When register ceases to be valid.  

    A register that is valid for an FBT year ceases to be valid at the end of that FBT year if the total of expenses incurred by the employer in providing meal entertainment for that FBT year is more than 20% higher than the corresponding total for the first FBT year for which the register was valid. A register also ceases to be valid for an FBT year if there is a later valid register for that FBT year.

    SECTION 37CE   MATTERS TO BE INCLUDED IN REGISTER  

    37CE(1)   [Details in register]  

    The register must include the details of the following:


    (a) the date the employer provided meal entertainment;


    (b) for each recipient of meal entertainment - whether the recipient is an employee of the employer or an associate of an employee of the employer;


    (c) the cost of the meal entertainment;


    (d) the kind of meal entertainment provided;


    (e) where the meal entertainment is provided;


    (f) if the meal entertainment is provided on the employer's premises - whether it is provided in an in-house dining facility within the meaning of section 32-55 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

    37CE(2)   [When details must be entered]  

    A person responsible for making entries in the register must make the entry as soon as practicable after he or she knows the details required by subsection (1).

    SECTION 37CF   37CF   FALSE OR MISLEADING ENTRIES INVALIDATE REGISTER  


    For the purposes of this Act, a register is not valid if the register contains an entry that is false or misleading in a material particular.

    Division 10 - Tax-exempt body entertainment fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Tax-exempt body entertainment benefits  

    SECTION 38   38   TAX-EXEMPT BODY ENTERTAINMENT BENEFITS  
    Where, at a particular time, a person (in this section referred to as the provider ) incurs non-deductible exempt entertainment expenditure that is wholly or partly in respect of the provision, in respect of the employment of an employee, of entertainment to a person (in this section referred to as the recipient ) being the employee or an associate of the employee, the incurring of the expenditure shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the recipient at that time in respect of that employment.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of tax-exempt body entertainment fringe benefits  

    SECTION 39   39   TAXABLE VALUE OF TAX-EXEMPT BODY ENTERTAINMENT FRINGE BENEFITS  


    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of a tax-exempt body entertainment fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is so much of the expenditure referred to in section 38 as is attributable to the provision of the entertainment referred to in that section.

    Division 10A - Car parking fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Car parking benefits  

    SECTION 39A   CAR PARKING BENEFITS  

    39A(1)  
    If the following conditions are satisfied in relation to a daylight period, or a combination of daylight periods, on a particular day:


    (a) during the period or periods, a car is parked on one or more premises of a person (the provider ), where:


    (i) the premises, or each of the premises, on which the car is parked are business premises, or associated premises, of the provider; and

    (ii) a commercial parking station is located within a 1 km radius of the premises, or each of the premises, on which the car is parked; and

    (iii) the lowest fee charged by the operator of any such commercial parking station in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking on the first business day of the FBT year is more than the car parking threshold;


    (b) the total duration of the period or periods exceeds 4 hours;


    (c) any of the following applies:


    (i) a car benefit relating to the car is provided on that day to an employee or an associate of an employee in respect of the employment of the employee;

    (ii) the car is owned by, or leased to, an employee or an associate of an employee at any time during the period or periods;

    (iii) the car is made available to an employee or an associate of an employee at any time during the period or periods by another person, where:

    (A) the other person is neither the employer of the employee nor an associate of the employer of the employee; and

    (B) the other person did not make the car available under an arrangement to which the employer of the employee, or an associate of the employer of the employee, is a party;


    (d) the provision of parking facilities for the car during the period or periods is in respect of the employment of the employee;


    (e) on that day, the employee has a primary place of employment;


    (f) during the period or periods, the car is parked at, or in the vicinity of, that primary place of employment;


    (g) on that day, the car is used in connection with travel by the employee between:


    (i) the place of residence of the employee; and

    (ii) that primary place of employment;


    (h) the provision of parking facilities for the car during the period or periods is not taken, under the regulations, to be excluded from this section;


    (i) the day is on or after 1 July 1993;

    the provision of parking facilities for the car during the period or periods is taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the employee or the associate of the employee in respect of the employment of the employee.

    39A(2)  


    For the purposes of this section:


    (a) the carparking threshold for the FBT year beginning on 1 April 1995 is $5.00; and


    (b) for later years the carparking threshold is the threshold for the previous FBT year as adjusted on the first business day of the later FBT year by a factor equivalent to the movement in the preceding twelve months in the All Groups Consumer Price Index number (being the weighted average of the 8 capital cities) published by the Australian Statistician.

    39A(2A)  


    However, the factor mentioned in paragraph (2)(b) is taken to be 1 if the movement described in that paragraph is down.

    39A(3)  


    Subject to subsection (4), if at any time, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, the Australian Statistician has published or publishes an index number in respect of a quarter in substitution for an index number previously published by the Australian Statistician in respect of that quarter, the publication of the later index number is to be disregarded for the purposes of this section.

    39A(4)  


    If at any time, whether before or after the commencement of this section, the Australian Statistician has changed or changes the index reference period for theConsumer Price Index, then, for the purposes of the application of this section after the change, regard is to be had only to the index numbers published in terms of the new index reference period.

    SECTION 39AA   39AA   ANTI-AVOIDANCE - FEE ON FIRST BUSINESS DAY NOT REPRESENTATIVE  


    For the purposes of subparagraph 39A(1)(a)(iii), any fee charged on the first business day of an FBT year that is not representative is to be disregarded.

    SECTION 39AB   39AB   WHEN FEES ARE NOT REPRESENTATIVE  


    A fee charged by an operator of a commercial parking station on a particular day is not representative if the fee is substantially greater or less than the average of the lowest fee charged by the operator in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking on each of the days in whichever of the following periods is chosen by the employer:


    (a) the 4 week period beginning on the day; or


    (b) the 4 week period ending on the day.

    SECTION 39B   39B   WHEN COMMERCIAL PARKING STATIONS ARE LOCATED WITHIN A 1 KM RADIUS OF BUSINESS PREMISES OR ASSOCIATED PREMISES  


    For the purposes of this Division, a commercial parking station is taken to be located within a 1 km radius of particular business premises or particular associated premises if, and only if, a car entrance to the commercial parking station is situated less than 1 km, by the shortest practicable route, from a car entrance to those premises.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of car parking fringe benefits  

    SECTION 39C   39C   TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR PARKING FRINGE BENEFITS - COMMERCIAL PARKING STATION METHOD  


    Subject to this Part, the taxable value, in relation to an FBT year, of a car parking fringe benefit provided on a day in the FBT year in connection with one or more premises is equal to:


    (a) if, on that day, there is only one commercial parking station located within a 1 km radius of any of those premises - the lowest fee charged by the operator of the parking station in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking on that day; or


    (b) if, on that day, there are 2 or more commercial parking stations located within a 1 km radius of any of those premises - the lowest fee charged by any of the operators of those parking stations in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking on that day;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 39D   TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR PARKING FRINGE BENEFITS - MARKET VALUE BASIS  

    39D(1)   Employer may choose market value basis.  

    An employer may elect that this section apply in relation to any or all of the car parking fringe benefits in relation to the employer in relation to a particular FBT year.

    39D(2)   Market value basis of working out taxable value.  

    Subject to this Part, if an election is made under subsection (1) in relation to a car parking fringe benefit provided on a day in an FBT year, the taxable value, in relation to the FBT year, of the fringe benefit is:


    (a) the amount that the recipient could reasonably be expected to have been required to pay the provider in respect of the provision of the benefit if it were assumed that the provider and the recipient were dealing with each other at arm's length;

    reduced by:


    (b) the amount of the recipients contribution.

    39D(3)   Valuer's report must be given to employer.  

    An election purporting to be made under subsection (1) in relation to one or more car parking fringe benefits is of no effect unless:


    (a) a suitably qualified valuer gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a report, in a form approved by the Commissioner, about the valuation of the fringe benefits; and


    (b) the valuer is at arm's length in relation to the valuation; and


    (c) the return of the employer of the FBT year, in so far as it relates to the taxable values of the fringe benefits, is based on the report.

    SECTION 39DA   TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR PARKING FRINGE BENEFITS - AVERAGE COST METHOD  

    39DA(1)   Election.  

    An employer may elect that this section applies to any or all of the employer's car parking fringe benefits for a particular FBT year.

    39DA(2)   Taxable value.  

    Subject to this Part, if an election covers a car parking fringe benefit, the taxable value of the fringe benefit is the average cost worked out under subsection (3) reduced by the recipients contribution.

    39DA(3)   Method of working out average cost.  

    The average cost is:


    A + B
    2

    where:

    A is the lowest fee charged in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking by any operator of a commercial parking station located within a 1 km radius of any of the relevant parking premises on the day on which a car parking benefit is first provided in that FBT year in relation to the employer in connection with any of those premises.

    B is the lowest fee charged in the ordinary course of business to members of the public for all-day parking by any operator of a commercial parking station located within a 1 km radius of any of the relevant parking premises on the day on which a car parking benefit is last provided in that FBT year in relation to the employer in connection with any of those premises.

    relevant parking premises means the premises referred to in paragraph 39A(1)(a).

    39DA(4)   Fees must be representative.  

    An election is of no effect if the fees referred to in subsection (3) arenot representative (see section 39AB).

    SECTION 39E   FEES CHARGED BY COMMERCIAL PARKING STATIONS FOR ALL-DAY PARKING  

    39E(1)   Daily rate equivalent for periodic parking arrangements.  

    For the purposes of this Division, if the operator of a commercial parking station provides all-day parking in the ordinary course of business to members of the public on a weekly, monthly, yearly or other periodic basis, the operator is taken to charge a fee for all-day parking on a particular day during the period equal to the amount worked out using the formula:


                 Total fee             
    Business days in period

    where:

    Total fee is the total fee charged by the operator in respect of all-day parking on days in that period;

    Business days in period means the number of business days in that period.

    39E(2)   Anti-avoidance.  

    If either or both of the following apply:


    (a) a transaction between the operator of a commercial parking station and a customer is not at arm's length;


    (b) the operator of a commercial parking station sets the level of a fee for the sole or dominant purpose of enabling one or more employers to obtain reductions in the taxable values of car parking fringe benefits;

    then, for the purposes of this Subdivision:


    (c) if only paragraph (a) applies - it is to be assumed that the fee is the fee that would have been payable if the operator and the customer had been dealing with each other at arm's length in relation to the transaction; and


    (d) if only paragraph (b) applies - it is to be assumed that the fee is the fee that would have been payable if it had been set without that purpose in mind; and


    (e) if both paragraphs (a) and (b) apply - it is to be assumed that the fee is the fee that would have been payable if:


    (i) the operator and the customer had been dealing with each other at arm's length in relation to the transaction; and

    (ii) it had been set without that purpose in mind.

    Subdivision C - Statutory formula method - spaces  

    SECTION 39F   THE KEY PRINCIPLE  


    Under this Subdivision, an employer may elect to calculate the value of certain car parking fringe benefits by using a statutory formula based on the number and value of spaces available to employees covered by the election.

    SECTION 39FA   SPACES METHOD OF CALCULATING TOTAL TAXABLE VALUE OF CAR PARKING FRINGE BENEFITS  

    39FA(1)   Election.  

    If a provider provides one or more car parking benefits in respect of one or more employees of an employer in a particular FBT year, the employer may elect that this Subdivision applies to the employer's car parking fringe benefits for some or all of the employees for that FBT year.

    39FA(2)   Employer must specify employees covered by election.  

    The employer must specify that the election covers:


    (a) all the employees; or


    (b) all employees of a particular class; or


    (c) particular employees.

    39FA(3)   Total value of car parking fringe benefits.  

    Despite any other provision of this Act (other than section 39FB) the total taxable value of the employer's car parking fringe benefits for employees covered by the election for the FBT year is the amount worked out using the spaces method under subsection (4).

    Note:

    Section 39FB covers the situation where the number of spaces available to employees exceeds the number of employees.

    39FA(4)   Method.  

    The spaces method is:


    Step 1: Work out an amount using the following formula, for each space for which there is, in the FBT year, at least one car parking benefit for an employee covered by the election:
    Daily rate amount × Number of days in
    availability periods in
       relation to the space   
    366
    × 228
    Step 2: Work out the total of all the amounts calculated under Step 1 (the total statutory benefit ).
    Step 3: Subtract from the total statutory benefit the sum of all relevant recipients contributions.

    Note 1:

    Section 39FC defines daily rate amount .

    Note 2:

    Section 39FD defines availability period .

    Note 3:

    Section 39FE defines relevant recipients contribution .

    39FA(5)   [Fees must be representative]  

    The election is of no effect if, in working out the daily rate for a space, the fees referred to in subsection 39DA(3) are not representative (see section 39AB).

    SECTION 39FB   NUMBER OF SPACES EXCEEDS NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES  

    39FB(1)   [Application of section]  

    This section applies if, throughout the parking period (see subsection (5)), the average number of employees covered by the election is less than the average number of spaces ( eligible spaces ) for which there is an availability period.

    39FB(2)   Formula to reduce total statutory benefits.  

    If this section applies, the total statutory benefit (see Step 2 in subsection 39FA(4)) is multiplied by the following fraction:


    Average number of employees
    Average number of eligible spaces

    39FB(3)   [Average number of employees]  

    The average number of employees is:


    Number of employees covered by election at the beginning of the parking period + Number of employees covered by election at the end of the parking period
    2

    39FB(4)   [Average number of eligible spaces]  

    The average number of eligible spaces is:


    Number of eligible spaces at the beginning of the parking period + Number of eligible spaces at the end of the parking period
    2

    39FB(5)   [Parking period]  

    The parking period is the period:


    (a) beginning on the first day in the FBT year on which the parking of a car in any space referred to in subsection 39FA(4) gives rise to a car parking fringe benefit of the employer for an employee covered by the election; and


    (b) ending on the last day in the FBT year on which the parking of a car in any space referred to in subsection 39FA(4) gives rise to a car parking fringe benefit of the employer for an employee covered by the election.

    39FB(6)   Number of employees and number of spaces must be representative.  

    This section does not apply if the number of employees or the number of eligible spaces referred to in subsections (3) and (4) arenot representative (see subsection (7)).

    39FB(7)   Meaning of not representative.  

    A number of employees, or a number of eligible spaces, as the case requires, is not representative if the number of employees, or eligible spaces, as the case requires, is substantially greater or less than the average number throughout whichever of the following periods is chosen by the employer:


    (a) the 4 week period ending on the first day of the parking period; or


    (b) the 4 week period beginning on the last day of the parking period.

    SECTION 39FC   39FC   MEANING OF DAILY RATE AMOUNT  


    The daily rate amount for a space is the amount that would be worked out using whichever of the following methods that the taxpayer chooses:


    (a) the commercial parking station method;


    (b) the market value method;


    (c) the average cost method;

    as the taxable value of the car parking fringe benefit for the space, if there were no recipients contribution.

    SECTION 39FD   39FD   MEANING OF AVAILABILITY PERIOD  


    An availability period for a space begins on the first day in the FBT year on which there is a car parking benefit for the space for an employee covered by the election and ends on the last day in the FBT year on which there is a car parking benefit for the space for an employee covered by the election.

    SECTION 39FE   39FE   MEANING OF RELEVANT RECIPIENTS CONTRIBUTION  


    A relevant recipients contribution is a recipients contribution in respect of any car parking fringe benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee covered by the election for the FBT year.

    Subdivision D - 12 week record keeping method  

    SECTION 39G   THE KEY PRINCIPLE  


    Under this Subdivision, an employer may keep a 12 week register of car parking provided to employees. An employer who keeps such a register may elect that the total value of certain car parking fringe benefits for an FBT year for which the register is valid is to be determined in accordance with the register.

    SECTION 39GA   EMPLOYER MAY ELECT TO USE 12 WEEK RECORD KEEPING METHOD  

    39GA(1)   [Election]  

    An employer may elect that this Subdivision applies to the employer's car parking fringe benefits for some or all of the employer's employees for that FBT year if the employer has a valid register for that FBT year covering those employees.

    39GA(2)   [Employees covered]  

    The employer must specify that the election covers:


    (a) all the employees; or


    (b) all employees of a particular class; or


    (c) particular employees.

    SECTION 39GB   39GB   VALUE OF FRINGE BENEFITS FOR YEAR  


    Despite any other provision of this Act (other than this section), the total taxable value of the employer's car parking fringe benefits for employees covered by the election for the FBT year is the amount worked out using the formula:
    Graphic

    SECTION 39GC   39GC   MEANING OF TOTAL VALUE OF CAR PARKING BENEFITS (REGISTER)  


    The total value of car parking benefits (register) , in relation to the FBT year, means the amount that would be the total taxable value of car parking fringe benefits for employees covered by the election for the 12 week period for which a register is kept, assuming that:


    (a) the register had been kept in that FBT year; and


    (b) the value of the benefits were calculated in accordance with the information in the register; and


    (c) the value of the benefits were calculated using whichever of the following methods that the taxpayer chooses:


    (i) the commercial parking station method;

    (ii) the market value method;

    (iii) the average cost method.

    SECTION 39GD   39GD   MEANING OF CAR PARKING AVAILABILITY PERIOD  


    The car parking availability period is the period:


    (a) beginning on the first day in the FBT year on which there is a car parking benefit for an employee covered by the election; and


    (b) ending on the last day in the FBT year on which there is a car parking benefit for an employee covered by the election.

    SECTION 39GE   CHOOSING THE 12 WEEK PERIOD FOR A REGISTER  

    39GE(1)   [Period register must be kept]  

    The register must be kept for a continuous period of at least 12 weeks throughout which car parking benefits are provided to employees covered by the election.

    39GE(2)   [Period must be representative]  

    The period for which the register is kept must be representative of usage for the first FBT year for which it is valid.

    39GE(3)   [Register not valid]  

    If subsection (1) or (2) is not satisfied, the register is not valid.

    SECTION 39GF   FBT YEARS FOR WHICH REGISTER IS VALID  

    39GF(1)   12 week period in one FBT year.  

    If the 12 week period begins and ends in the one FBT year, the register is valid for that FBT year and, subject to subsections (3) and (4), for each of the 4 FBT years immediately following that year.

    39GF(2)   12 week period over 2 FBT years.  

    If the 12 week period begins in one FBT year and ends in another FBT year, the register is only valid for the second FBT year and, subject to subsections (3) and (4), for each of the 4 years immediately following that year.

    39GF(3)   When register ceases to be valid - increase in benefits.  

    A register that is valid for an FBT year ceases to be valid at the end of that FBT year if the number of car parking fringe benefits for the employer for employees covered by the election increases by more than 10% on any day in that FBT year.

    Note:

    This means that if the number of car parking fringe benefits increases by more than 10%, the employer will have to keep a new register in the FBT year following the year of the increase if the employer wants to use the method in this Subdivision for that following year.

    39GF(4)   When a register ceases to be valid - later register.  

    A register that is valid for an FBT year ceases to be valid if there is a later valid register for that FBT year that covers the same employee.

    SECTION 39GG   MATTERS TO BE INCLUDED IN REGISTER  

    39GG(1)   [Details in register]  

    The register must include details of the following:


    (a) the date on which each car covered by subsection (4) was parked;


    (b) whether the car was parked for a total that exceeds 4 hours;


    (c) whether the car travelled between the place of residence of an employee covered by the election and his or her primary place of employment on that day;


    (d) the place where the car was parked.

    39GG(2)   [When details must be entered]  

    The person responsible for making entries in the register must make the entry as soon as practicable after he or she knows the details required by subsection (1).

    39GG(3)   [Register not valid]  

    If subsection (1) or (2) is not satisfied, the register is not valid.

    39GG(4)   [Car covered by provision]  

    A car is covered by this subsection if:


    (a) a car benefit relating to the car is provided on a day during the 12 week period to an employee covered by the election in respect of the employee's employment; or


    (b) the car is owned by, or leased to, an employee covered by the election at any time during the 12 week period; or


    (c) the car is made available by another person to an employee covered by the election at any time during the 12 week period where:


    (i) the other person is not the employee's employer; and

    (ii) the other person did not make the car available under an arrangement to which the employee's employer is a party.

    SECTION 39GH   39GH   FRAUDULENT ENTRIES INVALIDATE REGISTER  


    For the purposes of this Act, a register is not valid if the register contains an entry that is false or misleading in a material particular.

    Division 11 - Property fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Property benefits  

    SECTION 40   40   PROPERTY BENEFITS  
    Where, at a particular time, a person (in this section referred to as the provider ) provides property to another person (in this section referred to as the recipient ), the provision of the property shall be taken to constitute a benefit provided by the provider to the recipient at that time.

    SECTION 41   EXEMPT PROPERTY BENEFITS  

    41(1)  
    Where:


    (a) a property benefit is provided to a current employee of an employer in respect of his or her employment; and


    (b) the property is provided to, and consumed by, the employee on a working day and on business premises of:


    (i) the employer; or

    (ii) if the employer is a company, of the employer or of a company that is related to the employer;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit.

    41(2)  


    This section does not apply to food or drink provided to, and consumed by, an employee if the food or drink is provided under a salary packaging arrangement.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of property fringe benefits  

    SECTION 42   TAXABLE VALUE OF IN-HOUSE PROPERTY FRINGE BENEFITS  

    42(1)   [Calculation of taxable value]  

    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an in-house property fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is:


    (aa) if the recipient's property was provided to the recipient under a salary packaging arrangement - an amount equal to the notional value of the recipient's property at the provision time; or


    (ab) if paragraph (aa) does not apply and the benefit is an airline transport fringe benefit - an amount equal to 75% of the stand-by airline travel value of the benefit at the time the transport starts; or


    (a) if neither paragraph (aa) nor (ab) applies and the recipient's property was manufactured, produced, processed or treated by the provider:


    (i) if identical property that was manufactured, produced, processed or treated, as the case may be, by the provider was, at or about the provision time, sold by the provider in the ordinary course of business to purchasers being manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers - an amount equal to:

    (A) if any of that identical property was, at or about the provision time, sold by the provider under an arm's length transaction or arm's length transactions - the lowest price at which it was sold under such a transaction; or

    (B) if sub-subparagraph (A) does not apply - the lowest price at which any of that identical property could reasonably be expected to have been sold by the provider at or about the provision time under an arm's length transaction; or

    (ii) if subparagraph (i) does not apply but identical property that was manufactured, produced, processed or treated, as the case may be, by the provider was, at or about the provision time, sold by the provider:

    (A) in the ordinary course of business to members of the public under an arm's length transaction or arm's length transactions; and

    (B) in similar circumstances and subject to identical terms and conditions (other than as to price) as those that applied in relation to the provision of the recipient's property to the recipient;
    an amount equal to 75% of the lowest price at which that property was so sold to a member of the public; or

    (iii) in any other case - an amount equal to 75% of the notional value of the recipient's property at the provision time; or


    (b) if none of the above paragraphs applies and the property was acquired by the provider - an amount equal to the lesser of:


    (i) the arm's length price in respect of the acquisition of the recipient's property by the provider; or

    (ii) the notional value of the recipient's property at the provision time; or


    (c) in any other case - an amount equal to 75% of the notional value of the recipient's property at the provision time;

    reduced by the amount of the recipient's contribution.

    42(2)   [arm's length price]  

    In subsection (1), arm's length price , in respect of the acquisition of the recipients property by the provider, means:


    (a) if the recipients property was acquired by the provider in the ordinary course of business under an arm's length transaction - the cost price of the recipients property to the provider; or


    (b) in any other case - the amount that the provider could reasonably be expected to have been required to pay to acquire the recipients property under an arm's length transaction in the ordinary course of business.

    SECTION 43   43   TAXABLE VALUE OF EXTERNAL PROPERTY FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an external property fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is:


    (a) where the provider was the employer or an associate of the employer and the recipients property was purchased by the provider under an arm's length transaction at or about the provision time - the cost price of the recipients property to the provider;


    (b) where the provider was not the employer or an associate of the employer and the employer, or an associate of the employer, incurred expenditure to the provider under an arm's length transaction in respect of the provision of the property - the amount of that expenditure; or


    (c) in any other case - the notional value of the recipients property at the provision time;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 44   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  

    44(1)  


    Where:


    (a) the recipient of a property fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is an employee of the employer; and


    (b) if the recipient had, at the provision time, incurred and paid unreimbursed expenditure (in this subsection called the gross expenditure ), in respect of the purchase of the recipients property, equal to the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax - a once-only deduction (in this subsection called the gross deduction ) would, or would if not for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of the gross expenditure; and


    (ba) the amount (in this subsection called the notional deduction ) calculated in accordance with the formula:


    GD - RD


    where:
    GD is the gross deduction; and
    RD is:
  • (i) if there is no recipients contribution in relation to the property fringe benefit - nil; or
  • (ii) if there is a recipients contribution in relation to the property fringe benefit equal to, or calculated by reference to, an amount of consideration paid by the recipient to the provider or to the employer in respect of the provision of the recipients property - the amount (if any) that would, or that would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable as a once-only deduction to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of that consideration if that consideration had been incurred and paid by the recipient at the provision time;

  • exceeds nil; and


    (c) except where the property fringe benefit is:


    (i) an exclusive employee property benefit; or

    (ia) covered by a recurring fringe benefit declaration (see section 152A); or

    (ii) an extended travel property benefit; or

    (iii) a car property benefit;
    the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of the recipients property; and


    (d) where the property fringe benefit is an extended travel property benefit (other than an international aircrew property benefit) - the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a travel diary in relation to the travel undertaken by the recipient to which the fringe benefit relates; and


    (da) where:


    (i) the property fringe benefit is a car property benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (in this section called the holding period ) in the year of tax; and

    (ii) the substantiation rules set out in Division 15 have been complied with in relation to the car in relation to the holding period;
    the following conditions are satisfied:

    (iii) the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a car substantiation declaration for the car for the year of tax;

    (iv) in a case where the substantiation rules require log book records or odometer records to be maintained by or on behalf of the recipient in relation to the car - the car substantiation declaration is accompanied by a copy of those documents; and


    (e) if:


    (i) paragraph (da) does not apply; and

    (ii) the property fringe benefit is a car property benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (the holding period ) in the year of tax;
    the recipient gives a declaration to the employer, before the declaration date and in a form approved by the Commissioner, that purports to set out:

    (iii) the holding period; and

    (iv) the number of whole business kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period; and

    (v) the number of whole kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period;

    the taxable value, but for Division 14, of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    TV - ND

    where:

    TV is the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; and

    ND is:


    (f) if neither paragraph (da) nor paragraph (e) applies and paragraph (k) does not apply - the notional deduction; or


    (g) where paragraph (da) applies and paragraph (k) does not apply - whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) if it would be concluded that the amount of the recipients contribution would have been the same even if the property fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (ii) if subparagraph (i) does not apply - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or


    (h) where:


    (i) paragraph (e) applies; and

    (ii) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    (iia) paragraph (k) does not apply;
    whichever of the following amounts is the least:

    (iii) the notional deduction;

    (iv) if it would be concluded that the amount of the recipients contribution would have been the same even if the property fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (v) if subparagraph (iv) does not apply - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the property fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or


    (j) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)


    (k) if, under subsection 138(3), the property fringe benefit is deemed to have been provided to the recipient only - the amount calculated in accordance with subsection (5).

    44(2)  
    For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a fringe benefit, where the recipient:


    (a) while undertaking travel referred to in paragraph (1)(d), engages in an activity in the course of producing assessable income of the recipient; and


    (b) does not make, as mentioned in the definition of travel diary in subsection 136(1), an entry relating to the activity, being an entry of the kind referred to in that definition;

    the activity shall be deemed not to have been engaged in by the recipient in the course of producing assessable income.

    44(3)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    44(4)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    44(5)  


    For the purposes of paragraph (1)(k) (which applies to a property fringe benefit that, under subsection 138(3), is deemed to have been provided to an employee only), the amount is calculated in accordance with the formula:


    Unadjusted ND × Employee's percentage of interest

    where:

    employee's percentage of interest
    :

  • (a) is the percentage of the interest held by the employee, during a period (in this subsection called the holding period ) in the year of tax, in the asset or other thing that:
  • (i) is the property to which the property fringe benefit relates; and
  • (ii) is applied or used for the purpose of producing assessable income of the employee; and
  • (b) does not include the percentage of the interest held in that asset or other thing by the employee's associate or associates during the holding period.
  • unadjusted ND
    is the amount that would be ascertained as representing the component ND in the formula in subsection (1) if paragraph (1)(k) did not apply in relation to the property fringe benefit.

    Division 12 - Residual fringe benefits  

    Subdivision A - Residual benefits  

    SECTION 45   45   RESIDUAL BENEFITS  
    A benefit is a residual benefit for the purposes of this Act if the benefit is not a benefit by virtue of a provision of Subdivision A of Divisions 2 to 11 (inclusive).

    SECTION 46   YEAR OF TAX IN WHICH RESIDUAL BENEFITS TAXED  

    46(1)   [Benefit provided in more than one tax year]  

    Subject to this section, a residual benefit that is provided during a period shall be deemed to have been provided in respect of each year of tax during which any part of that period occurred.

    46(2)   [Payment for benefit provided in regular billing periods]  

    Where:


    (a) a residual benefit (in this subsection referred to as the eligible benefit ), not being a residual benefit constituted by a lease or licence in respect of property, is provided on the basis that, in respect of each of a number of regular periods (in this subsection referred to as a billing period ) commencing on or after 1 July 1986 (whether or not there were any such periods before that date), a payment is to be made in respect of the provision of the benefit during the billing period; and


    (b) identical benefits are provided to members of the public on the same basis and in the ordinary course of a business carried on by the person providing the eligible benefit;

    the following provisions have effect:


    (c) the provision of the eligible benefit during each billing period shall be taken to constitute a separate benefit;


    (d) each such separate residual benefit shall be deemed to have been provided at the time at which the payment in respect of the billing period concerned is due and payable, and not otherwise.

    SECTION 47   EXEMPT RESIDUAL BENEFITS  

    47(1)  
    Where:


    (a) in respect of the employment of a current employee, the employer, or an associate of the employer, provides a residual benefit to the employee that consists of transport of the employee, otherwise than in an aircraft:


    (i) between:

    (A) the place of residence of the employee; and

    (B) the place of employment of the employee or any other place from which or at which the employee performs duties of that employment; or

    (ii) in a case where the place referred to in sub-subparagraph (i)(B) is in a metropolitan area - on a regular and scheduled service over a route wholly within that metropolitan area; and


    (b) where the provider is the employer - the employer carries on a business of providing transport to members of the public; and


    (c) where the provider is an associate of the employer - the employer and the associate each carries on a business of providing transport to members of the public; and


    (d) the transport referred to in paragraph (a) is provided in the same, or substantially the same, circumstances as transport provided to members of the public in the ordinary course of carrying on a business of providing transport to members of the public; and


    (e) the employee is employed in the business of providing transport to members of the public; and


    (f) the benefit is not provided under a salary packaging arrangement;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit.

    47(1A)  


    Where:


    (a) a person is an employee of a government body; and


    (b) the person's duties of employment are performed in a police service; and


    (c) the person is provided with a residual benefit consisting of the provision of travel on public transport; and


    (d) the benefit is provided for the purpose of travel between:


    (i) the person's place of residence; and

    (ii) the person's primary place of employment;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit .

    47(2)  
    Where:


    (a) a residual benefit provided to a current employee in respect of his or her employment consists of:


    (i) the provision, or use, of a recreational facility; or

    (ii) the care of children of the employee in a child care facility; and


    (b) the recreational facility or child care facility, as the case may be, is located on business premises of:


    (i) the employer; or

    (ii) if the employer is a company, of the employer or of a company that is related to the employer;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit.

    47(3)  


    Where a residual benefit provided to a current employee in respect of his or her employment consists of the use of property (other than a motor vehicle) that is ordinarily located on business premises of, and is wholly or principally used directly in connection with business operations of:


    (a) the employer; or


    (b) if the employer is a company - the employer or a company that is related to the employer;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit.

    47(4)  
    For the purposes of subsection (3), toilets, bathroom facilities, food or drink vending machines, tea or coffee making facilities, water dispensers or other amenities (not being facilities for drinking or dining) for the use of employees of an employer shall be taken to be principally used directly in connection with business operations of the employer.

    47(4A)  


    For the purposes of subsection (3), a building site, construction site or any similar place where a person carries on business operations shall be taken to be business premises of the person.

    47(5)  
    Where:


    (a) a residual benefit consisting of the subsistence, during a year of tax, of a lease or licence in respect of a unit of accommodation is provided to an employee of an employer in respect of his or her employment; and


    (b) the unit of accommodation is for the accommodation of eligible family members and is provided solely because the duties of that employment require the employee to live away from his or her normal residence; and


    (ba) the employee satisfies:


    (i) sections 31C (about maintaining an Australian home) and 31D (about the first 12 months); or

    (ii) section 31E (about fly-in fly-out and drive-in drive-out requirements); and


    (c) the accommodation is not provided while the employee is undertaking travel in the course of performing the duties of that employment; and


    (d) any of the following conditions is satisfied:


    (i) subsection (7) applies in relation to the provision of transport for the employee in connection with travel in the period in the year of tax when the lease or licence subsisted, being travel between the employee's usual place of residence and the employee's usual place of employment;

    (ii) if the employee satisfies sections 31C and 31D - the employee gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, purporting to set out the matters in subparagraphs 31F(1)(a)(i) to (iii);

    (iii) if the employee satisfies section 31E - the employee gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, purporting to set out the matters in subparagraphs 31F(1)(b)(i) to (iii);

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    47(6)  
    Where:


    (a) a residual benefit consisting of the provision or use of a motor vehicle is provided in a year of tax in respect of the employment of a current employee;


    (aa) the motor vehicle is not:


    (i) a taxi let on hire to the provider; or

    (ii) a car, not being:

    (A) a panel van or utility truck; or

    (B) any other road vehicle designed to carry a load of less than 1 tonne (other than a vehicle designed for the principal purpose of carrying passengers); and


    (b) there was no private use of the motor vehicle during the year of tax and at a time when the benefit was provided other than:


    (i) work-related travel of the employee; and

    (ii) other private use of the motor vehicle by the employee or an associate of the employee, being other use that was minor, infrequent and irregular;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    47(6A)  


    Where:


    (a) a residual benefit consisting of the provision or use of a motor vehicle is provided by a particular person (in this subsection called the "provider" ) in a year of tax in respect of the employment of a current employee of an employer;


    (b) at all times during the year of tax when the motor vehicle was held by the provider, the motor vehicle was unregistered; and


    (c) during the period in the year of tax when the motor vehicle was held by the provider, the motor vehicle was wholly or principally used directly in connection with business operations of:


    (i) the employer; or

    (ii) if the employer is a company - the employer or a company that is related to the employer;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    47(6B)  


    A reference in subsection (6A) to a motor vehicle held by a provider is a reference to:


    (a) a motor vehicle owned by the provider;


    (b) a motor vehicle leased to the provider; or


    (c) a motor vehicle otherwise made available to the provider by another person.

    47(7)  


    Where, during a period of employment with an employer:


    (a) an employee's usual place of employment is:


    (i) on an oil rig, or other installation, at sea; or

    (ii) at a location in a State or internal Territory but not in, or adjacent to, an eligible urban area; or

    (iii) at a remote location that is not in a State or internal Territory; and
    Note:

    For the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, see section 157.


    (b) the employee is provided with residential accommodation, at or near that usual place of employment, by:


    (i) the employer; or

    (ii) an associate of the employer; or

    (iii) a person (in this subparagraph referred to as the "arranger" ) other than the employer or an associate of the employer under an arrangement between:

    (A) the employer or an associate of the employer; and

    (B) the arranger or another person; and


    (c) the employee, on a regular basis:


    (i) works for a number of days and has a number of days off; and

    (ii) on completion of the working days, travels from that usual place of employment to his or her usual place of residence and, on completion of the days off, returns from his or her usual place of residence to that usual place of employment; and


    (d) the employee is provided with transport on a regular basis in connection with the travel referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii) and that transport is provided by:


    (i) the employer; or

    (ii) an associate of the employer; or

    (iii) a person (in this subparagraph referred to as the "arranger" ) other than the employer or an associate of the employer under an arrangement between:

    (A) the employer or an associate of the employer; and

    (B) the arranger or another person; and


    (e) it would be unreasonable to expect the employee to travel on a daily basis on work days between:


    (i) that usual place of employment; and

    (ii) the location of the employee's usual place of residence;
    having regard to the location of those places;

    the residual benefit constituted by the provision of the transport referred to in paragraph (d) is an exempt benefit.

    47(8)  


    If:


    (a) a residual benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee arose out of priority of access, for a child or children of the employee, to:


    (i) a place that is an eligible child care centre for the purposes of any provision of the Child Care Act 1972; or

    (ia) (Repealed by No 83 of 1999)

    (ii) family day care provided before the commencement of item 1 of Schedule 10 to the A New Tax System (Family Assistance) (Consequential and Related Measures) Act (No. 2) 1999; or

    (iii) care outside school hours provided before the commencement of item 1 of Schedule 10 to the A New Tax System (Family Assistance) (Consequential and Related Measures) Act (No. 2) 1999; or

    (iv) care in school vacations provided before the commencement of item 1 of Schedule 10 to the A New Tax System (Family Assistance) (Consequential and Related Measures) Act (No. 2) 1999; or

    (v) an approved child care service within the meaning of the A New Tax System (Family Assistance) (Administration) Act 1999; and

    (vi)-(viii) (Repealed by No 22 of 2017)


    (b) in order to obtain that priority of access, the employer of the employee, or an associate of the employer, made a contribution under a program administered by the Families Department;

    the residual benefit is an exempt benefit.

    SECTION 47A   EXEMPTION - NO-PRIVATE-USE DECLARATION  

    47A(1)   [Exempt benefit]  

    A residual fringe benefit that is covered by a no-private-use declaration is an exempt benefit.

    47A(2)   [No-private-use declaration]  

    An employer may make a no-private-use declaration that covers all the employer's residual fringe benefits for an FBT year that are covered by a consistently enforced policy in relation to the use of the property that is the subject of the benefit that would result in the taxable value of the benefit being nil.

    47A(3)   [Form of declaration]  

    The declaration must be in a form approved in writing by the Commissioner and be made by the declaration date.

    Subdivision B - Taxable value of residual fringe benefits  

    SECTION 48   48   TAXABLE VALUE OF IN-HOUSE NON-PERIOD RESIDUAL FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an in-house non-period residual fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is:


    (aa) if the benefit was provided to the recipient under a salary packaging arrangement - an amount equal to the notional value of the benefit at the comparison time; or


    (ab) if paragraph (aa) does not apply and the benefit is an airline transport fringe benefit - an amount equal to 75% of the stand-by airline travel value of the benefit at the comparison time; or


    (a) if neither paragraph (aa) nor (ab) applies and, at or about the comparison time, identical benefits were provided by the provider:


    (i) in the ordinary course of business to members of the public under an arm's length transaction or arm's length transactions; and

    (ii) in similar circumstances and subject to identical terms and conditions (other than as to price) as those that applied in relation to the provision of the recipients benefit to the recipient;
    an amount equal to 75% of the lowest price at which an identical benefit was so sold to a member of the public; or


    (b) in any other case - an amount equal to 75% of the notional value of the benefit at the comparison time;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 49   49   TAXABLE VALUE OF IN-HOUSE PERIOD RESIDUAL FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an in-house period residual fringe benefit in relation to a year of tax is:


    (aa) if the benefit was provided to the recipient under a salary packaging arrangement - an amount equal to the notional value of the benefit at the comparison time; or


    (ab) if paragraph (aa) does not apply and the benefit is an airline transport fringe benefit - an amount equal to 75% of the stand-by airline travel value of the benefit at the comparison time; or


    (a) if neither paragraph (aa) nor (ab) applies and, at or about the comparison time, identical overall benefits were provided by the provider:


    (i) in the ordinary course of business to members of the public under an arm's length transaction or arm's length transactions; and

    (ii) in similar circumstances and subject to identical terms and conditions (other than as to price) as those that applied in relation to the provision of the recipients overall benefit;
    an amount equal to 75% of the lowest amount paid or payable by any such member of the public in respect of the current identical benefit in relation to an identical overall benefit so provided; or


    (b) in any other case - an amount equal to 75% of the notional value of the recipients current benefit;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution insofar as it relates to the recipients current benefit.

    SECTION 50   50   TAXABLE VALUE OF EXTERNAL NON-PERIOD RESIDUAL FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an external non-period residual fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is:


    (a) where the provider was the employer or an associate of the employer and the benefit was purchased by the provider under an arm's length transaction - the amount paid or payable by the provider for the benefit;


    (b) where the provider was not the employer or an associate of the employer and the employer, or an associate of the employer, incurred expenditure to the provider under an arm's length transaction in respect of the provision of the benefit - the amount of that expenditure; or


    (c) in any other case - the notional value of the benefit at the comparison time;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution.

    SECTION 51   51   TAXABLE VALUE OF EXTERNAL PERIOD RESIDUAL FRINGE BENEFITS  
    Subject to this Part, the taxable value of an external period residual fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is:


    (a) where the provider was the employer or an associate of the employer and the recipients overall benefit was purchased by the provider under an arm's length transaction - the amount paid or payable by the provider in respect of the recipients current benefit;


    (b) where the provider was not the employer or an associate of the employer and the employer, or an associate of the employer, incurred expenditure to the provider under an arm's length transaction in respect of the provision of the recipients current benefit - the amount of that expenditure; or


    (c) in any other case - the notional value of the recipients current benefit;

    reduced by the amount of the recipients contribution insofar as it relates to the recipients current benefit.

    SECTION 52   REDUCTION OF TAXABLE VALUE - OTHERWISE DEDUCTIBLE RULE  

    52(1)  


    Where:


    (a) the recipient of a residual fringe benefit in relation to an employer in relation to a year of tax is an employee of the employer; and


    (b) if the recipient had, at the comparison time, incurred and paid unreimbursed expenditure (in this subsection called the gross expenditure ), in respect of the provision of the recipients benefit, equal to the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax - a once-only deduction (in this subsection called the gross deduction ) would, or would if not for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, have been allowable to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of the gross expenditure; and


    (ba) the amount (in this subsection called the notional deduction ) calculated in accordance with the formula:


    GD - RD


    where:

    GD is the gross deduction; and

    RD is:

  • (i) if there is no recipients contribution in relation to the residual fringe benefit - nil; or
  • (ii) if there is a recipients contribution in relation to the residual fringe benefit equal to, or calculated by reference to, an amount of consideration paid by the recipient to the provider or to the employer in respect of the provision of the recipients benefit - the amount (if any) that would, or that would but for section 82A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936, and Divisions 28 and 900 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 have been allowable as a once-only deduction to the recipient under either of those Acts in respect of so much of that consideration as was taken into account for the purposes of section 4-15 or 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, if that consideration had been incurred and paid by the recipient at the comparison time;

  • exceeds nil; and


    (c) except where the fringe benefit is:


    (i) an exclusive employee residual benefit; or

    (ia) covered by a recurring fringe benefit declaration (see section 152A); or

    (ii) an extended travel residual benefit; or

    (iii) a car residual benefit;
    the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a declaration, in a form approved by the Commissioner, in respect of the recipients benefit; and


    (d) where the fringe benefit is an extended travel residual benefit (other than an international aircrew residual benefit) - the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a travel diary in relation to the travel undertaken by the recipient to which the fringe benefit relates; and


    (da) where:


    (i) the fringe benefit is a car residual benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (in this section called the holding period ) in the year of tax; and

    (ii) the substantiation rules set out in Division 15 have been complied with in relation to the car in relation to the holding period;
    the following conditions are satisfied:

    (iii) the recipient gives to the employer, before the declaration date, a car substantiation declaration for the car for the year of tax;

    (iv) in a case where the substantiation rules require log book records or odometer records to be maintained by or on behalf of the recipient in relation to the car - the car substantiation declaration is accompanied by a copy of those documents; and


    (e) if:


    (i) paragraph (da) does not apply; and

    (ii) the fringe benefit is a car residual benefit in respect of a car held by the recipient during a period (the holding period ) in the year of tax;
    the recipient gives a declaration to the employer, before the declaration date and in a form approved by the Commissioner, that purports to set out:

    (iii) the holding period; and

    (iv) the number of whole business kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period; and

    (v) the number of whole kilometres travelled by the car during the holding period;

    the taxable value, but for Division 14, of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax is the amount calculated in accordance with the formula:


    TV - ND

    where:

    TV is the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; and

    ND is:


    (f) if neither paragraph (da) nor paragraph (e) applies and paragraph (k) does not apply - the notional deduction; or


    (g) where paragraph (da) applies and paragraph (k) does not apply - whichever of the following amounts is applicable:


    (i) if it would be concluded that the amount of the recipients contribution would have been the same even if the residual fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (ii) if subparagraph (i) does not apply - the business use percentage of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or


    (h) where:


    (i) paragraph (e) applies; and

    (ii) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    (iia) paragraph (k) does not apply;
    whichever of the following amounts is the least:

    (iii) the notional deduction;

    (iv) if it would be concluded that the amount of the recipients contribution would have been the same even if the residual fringe benefit were not applied or used in producing assessable income of the recipient - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax;

    (v) if subparagraph (iv) does not apply - 331/3% of the amount that, but for this subsection and Division 14 and the recipients contribution, would be the taxable value of the residual fringe benefit in relation to the year of tax; or


    (j) (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)


    (k) if, under subsection 138(3), the residual fringe benefit is deemed to have been provided to the recipient only - the amount calculated in accordance with subsection (5).

    52(2)  
    For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a fringe benefit, where the recipient:


    (a) while undertaking travel referred to in paragraph (1)(d), engages in an activity in the course of producing assessable income of the recipient; and


    (b) does not make, as mentioned in the definition of travel diary in subsection 136(1), an entry relating to the activity, being an entry of the kind referred to in that definition;

    the activity shall be deemed not to have been engaged in by the recipient in the course of producing assessable income.

    52(3)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    52(4)  
    (Repealed by No 162 of 2015)

    52(5)  


    For the purposes of paragraph (1)(k) (which applies to a residual fringe benefit that, under subsection 138(3), is deemed to have been provided to an employee only), the amount is calculated in accordance with the formula:


    Unadjusted ND × Employee's percentage of interest

    where:

    employee's percentage of interest
    :

  • (a) is the percentage of the interest held by the employee, during a period (in this subsection called the holding period ) in the year of tax, in the asset or other thing:
  • (i) to which the residual fringe benefit relates; and
  • (ii) that is applied or used for the purpose of producing assessable income of the employee; and
  • (b) does not include the percentage of the interest held in that asset or other thing by the employee's associate or associates during the holding period.
  • unadjusted ND
    is the amount that would be ascertained as representing the component ND in the formula in subsection (1) if paragraph (1)(k) did not apply in relation to the residual fringe benefit.

    Division 13 - Miscellaneous exempt benefits  

    SECTION 53   MOTOR VEHICLE FRINGE BENEFIT FUEL ETC. TO BE EXEMPT IN CERTAIN CASES  

    53(1)   [Benefits provided when car fringe benefit provided]  

    For the purposes of this Act:


    (a) a car expense payment benefit;


    (b) a car property benefit; or


    (c) a car residual benefit;

    in respect of a car, being a benefit that is attributable to a period when a car fringe benefit was provided, or would but for subsection 8(2) have been provided, in relation to the car, is an exempt benefit.

    53(2)   [Application where motor vehicle residual fringe benefit]  

    Where the provision or use of a motor vehicle would, but for subsection 47(6), be a residual fringe benefit in relation to a period in a year of tax, subsection (1) applies in relation to the motor vehicle as if:


    (a) the motor vehicle were a car; and


    (b) a car fringe benefit were provided during that period in relation to the motor vehicle.

    53(3)   [Definitions]  

    In this section:

    car expense payment benefit
    means an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is a car expense;

    car property benefit
    means a property benefit where, if the recipient had incurred expenditure in respect of the provision of the recipients property, that expenditure would have been a car expense;

    car residual benefit
    means a residual benefit where, if the recipient had incurred expenditure in respect of the provision of the recipients benefit, that expenditure would have been a car expense.

    SECTION 54   54   PROVISION OF FOOD OR DRINK TO BE EXEMPT BENEFIT IN CERTAIN CASES  
    Where:


    (a) a board fringe benefit in relation to an employer is provided on a particular day;


    (b) on that day, the provider of the fringe benefit also provides food or drink (not being a meal) to the recipient of the fringe benefit; and


    (c) the food or drink:


    (i) is provided to, and consumed by, the recipient on that day on eligible premises of the employer; and

    (ii) is not provided at a party, reception or other social function;

    the provision of the food or drink is an exempt benefit.

    SECTION 55   55   BENEFITS PROVIDED BY CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS TO BE EXEMPT  
    A benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee of an employer is an exempt benefit if:


    (a) the employer is an organisation that, but for subsections 66(2) and (3), would be exempt from a liability to pay tax in respect of the benefit by virtue of the operation of the International Organisations (Privileges and Immunities) Act 1963; or


    (b) the employer is an organisation established by an agreement to which Australia is a party and which obliges Australia to grant the employer an exemption from a liability to pay tax in respect of the benefit.

    SECTION 56   56   PRESERVATION OF DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR IMMUNITIES  
    A benefit that, but for subsections 66(2) and (3), would be exempt from tax by virtue of the Consular Privileges and Immunities Act 1972 or the Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities Act 1967 is an exempt benefit.

    SECTION 57   57   EXEMPT BENEFITS - EMPLOYEES OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS  
    Where:


    (a) the employer of an employee is a registered religious institution; and


    (b) the employee is a religious practitioner; and


    (c) a benefit is provided to, or to a spouse or a child of, the employee; and


    (d) the benefit is not provided principally in respect of duties of the employee other than:


    (i) any pastoral duties; or

    (ii) any other duties or activities that are directly related to the practice, study, teaching or propagation of religious beliefs;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit.

    SECTION 57A   EXEMPT BENEFITS - PUBLIC BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS, HEALTH PROMOTION CHARITIES, SOME HOSPITALS AND PUBLIC AMBULANCE SERVICES  

    57A(1)  


    Where the employer of an employee is a registered public benevolent institution endorsed under section 123C, a benefit provided in respect of the employment of the employee is an exempt benefit.

    57A(2)  
    Where:


    (a) the employer of an employee is a government body; and


    (b) the duties of the employment of the employee are exclusively performed in, or in connection with:


    (i) a public hospital; or

    (ii) a hospital carried on by a society or association that is a rebatable employer;

    (iii) (Repealed by No 124 of 2013)

    a benefit provided in respect of the employment of the employee is an exempt benefit.

    57A(3)  


    A benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee is an exempt benefit if:


    (a) the employer of the employee is a public hospital; or


    (b) the employer provides public ambulance services or services that support those services and the employee is predominantly involved in connection with the provision of those services.

    57A(4)  


    A benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee is an exempt benefit if the employer of the employee is a hospital carried on by a society or association that is a rebatable employer.

    57A(5)  


    A benefit provided in respect of the employment of an employee is an exempt benefit if:


    (a) the employer of the employee is a registered health promotion charity; and


    (b) the registered health promotion charity is endorsed under subsection 123D(1).

    SECTION 58   EXEMPT BENEFITS - LIVE-IN RESIDENTIAL CARE WORKERS  

    58(1)  
    Where, during a period:


    (a) the employer of an employee is:


    (i) a government body; or

    (ii) a registered religious institution; or

    (iii) a company that is registered under the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission Act 2012 and does not meet the description of the subtype of entity in column 2 of item 4 of the table in subsection 25-5(5) of that Act; or

    (iv) a non-profit company that is not an ACNC type of entity;
    whose activities consist of, or include, caring for elderly persons or disadvantaged persons; and


    (b) the duties of the employment of the employee consist of, or consist principally of:


    (i) caring for elderly persons and any children of those elderly persons who reside with those elderly persons; or

    (ii) caring for disadvantaged persons and any children of those disadvantaged persons who reside with those disadvantaged persons; and


    (c) in the performance of those duties, the employee lives, together with elderly persons or disadvantaged persons, in residential premises of the employer; and


    (d) the fact that the person lives in those premises is directly related to the provision, in the course of the performance of the duties of the employment of the employee, of care to the elderly persons or disadvantaged persons living in those premises;

    any benefit arising from the provision, during that period, of:


    (e) that accommodation to the employee or to the employee and a spouse or child of the employee who resides in those premises with the employee; or


    (f) residential fuel in connection with that accommodation for use by the employee or by the employee and a spouse or child of the employee; or


    (g) meals provided on those premises to the employee or to a spouse or child of the employee who resides in those premises with the employee; or


    (h) food or drink (other than meals) for consumption during that period by the employee or by a spouse or child of the employee who resides in those premises with the employee;

    is an exempt benefit.

    58(2)  


    In this section:

    "residential premises"
    means a house or hostel used exclusively for the provision of residential accommodation to:


    (a) elderly persons or disadvantaged persons and children of elderly persons or disadvantaged persons;


    (b) persons the duties of whose employment consist of, or consist principally of, caring for persons referred to in paragraph (a); and


    (c) spouses and children of persons referred to in paragraph (b).

    SECTION 58A   58A   EXEMPT BENEFITS - EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWS AND SELECTION TESTS  


    Where:


    (a) a car benefit, an expense payment benefit, a property benefit or a residual benefit is provided in, or in respect of, a year of tax in respect of the employment of an employee of an employer;


    (b) the benefit is in respect of an employment interview or selection test; and


    (c) in the case of an expense payment benefit:


    (i) the benefit is not constituted by the reimbursement of the recipient, in whole or in part, in respect of an amount of a Division 28 car expense incurred by the recipient in relation to a car owned by, or leased to, the recipient, being a reimbursement calculated by reference to the distance travelled by the car; and

    (ii) documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    SECTION 58AA   EXEMPT BENEFITS - ENGAGEMENT OF RELOCATION CONSULTANT  

    58AA(1)   [Conditions]  

    A benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to a year of tax if:


    (a) the benefit is an expense payment benefit, or a residual benefit, provided in, or in respect of, the year of tax in respect of the employment of an employee; and


    (b) the benefit is in respect of, or consists of, the engagement of a relocation consultant; and


    (c) the engagement of the relocation consultant is required solely for one or more of the following reasons:


    (i) the employee is required to live away from his or her usual place of residence to perform the duties of the employment mentioned in paragraph (a) (the new employment duties );

    (ii) having lived away from his or her usual place of residence to perform the new employment duties, the employee is required to return there to perform them, or because the employee has ceased to perform them;

    (iii) the employee is required to change his or her usual place of residence to perform those duties; and


    (d) the relocation consultant is engaged to help a family member:


    (i) if subparagraph (c)(i) applies - to settle, or to remain, at or near the location where the employee performs the new employment duties while living away from his or her usual place of residence; or

    (ii) if subparagraph (c)(ii) applies - to settle at the location of the employee's usual place of residence; or

    (iii) if subparagraph (c)(iii) applies - to settle, or to remain, at the location of the employee's new usual place of residence; and


    (e) the benefit is not provided under a non-arm's length arrangement; and


    (f) if the benefit is an expense payment benefit - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date.

    58AA(2)   [Kinds of help]  

    Without limiting subsection (1), a reference in that subsection to helping a family member to settle, or to remain, at a location includes:


    (a) a relocation consultant finding, or providing information to the family member about, accommodation for the family member at the location; or


    (b) a relocation consultant providing information to the family member about education facilities or other community amenities and services at the location;

    but does not include a reference to a relocation consultant paying expenses on behalf of a family member.

    SECTION 58B   EXEMPT BENEFITS - REMOVALS AND STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD EFFECTS AS A RESULT OF RELOCATION  

    58B(1)   [Conditions for exemption]  

    Where:


    (a) either of the following benefits is provided in, or in respect of, a year of tax in respect of the employment of an employee:


    (i) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is in respect of the removal or storage of household effects of the employee;

    (ii) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit consists of the removal or storage of household effects of the employee;


    (b) the removal or storage is required solely because:


    (i) the employee is required to live away from his or her usual place of residence in order to perform the duties of that employment;

    (ii) the employee, having lived away from his or her usual place of residence in order to perform the duties of that employment, is required to return to his or her usual place of residence:

    (A) in order to perform those duties; or

    (B) because the employee has ceased to perform those duties; or

    (iii) the employee is required to change his or her usual place of residence in order to perform the duties of that employment;


    (c) the removal or storage is required to enable a family member to:


    (i) if subparagraph (b)(i) applies - take up residence, or to continue to reside, at or near the place where the employee performs the duties of that employment while living away from his or her usual place of residence;

    (ii) if subparagraph (b)(ii) applies - take up residence at the employee's usual place of residence; or

    (iii) if subparagraph (b)(iii) applies - take up residence, or to continue to reside, at the employee's new usual place of residence;


    (d) if subparagraph (b)(iii) applies:


    (i) the removal takes place, or the storage commences to be provided, within 12 months after the day on which the employee commenced to perform the duties of that employment at the employee's new place of employment; and

    (ii) the benefit is not provided under a non-arm's length arrangement;


    (e) if subparagraph (a)(i) applies - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (f) the removal or storage was not provided in connection with travel undertaken by the employee in the course of performing the duties of that employment;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    58B(2)   [Interpretation]  

    For the purposes of this section:


    (a) a reference to the household effects of an employee is a reference to tangible property (whether or not owned by a family member) kept primarily for the personal use of family members; and


    (b) without limiting the generality of an expression used in subsection (1), the recipients expenditure shall be taken to be in respect of, and the recipients benefit shall be taken to consist of, the removal or storage of household effects if the expenditure or benefit is in respect of, or consists of, the transport, packing, unpacking or insurance of the household effects in connection with the removal or storage of the household effects.

    SECTION 58C   EXEMPT BENEFITS - SALE OR ACQUISITION OF DWELLING AS A RESULT OF RELOCATION  

    58C(1)   [Pre-condition for application of exemption]  

    Where:


    (a) during a particular period (in this subsection called the ``former home holding period'' ), an employee of an employer, or an associate of an employee of an employer, holds:


    (i) a prescribed interest in land on which:

    (A) there is a building constituting or containing a dwelling;

    (B) the employee or associate proposes to construct, or complete the construction of, a building constituting or containing a dwelling;

    (ii) a prescribed interest in a stratum unit in relation to a dwelling; or

    (iii) a proprietary right in respect of a dwelling, being a flat or home unit;


    (b) the employee or associate sells, or proposes to sell, the interest or right solely because the employee is required to change his or her usual place of residence in order to perform the duties of his or her employment;


    (c) the employer first notifies the employee at a time (in this subsection called the ``notice time'' ) during the former home holding period that the employee is required to perform the duties of that employment at the employee's new place of employment; and


    (d) at the notice time, the employee occupied, or proposed to occupy, the dwelling, or proposed to occupy the proposed dwelling, as his or her usual place of residence;


    (e) (Repealed by No 23 of 2005)

    the following subsections have effect.

    58C(2)   [Sale of property]  

    Where:


    (a) either of the following benefits is provided in respect of that employment of the employee in, or in respect of, a year of tax:


    (i) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is incidental to the sale of that interest or right;

    (ii) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit is incidental to the sale of that interest or right;


    (aa) the employee or associate entered into a contract for the sale of the interest or right within 2 years after the day (the new employment day ) on which the employee commenced to perform the duties of that employment at the employee's new place of employment;


    (b) if, apart from this paragraph, this subsection would apply in relation to 2 or more dwellings or proposed dwellings in relation to the change in the employee's usual place of residence - the employer of the employee elects that this subsection apply in relation to only one of those dwellings or proposed dwellings;


    (c) if paragraph (b) applies - the benefit relates to the dwelling or proposed dwelling in respect of which the election is made;


    (d) if subparagraph (a)(i) applies - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (e) the benefit is not provided under a non-arm's length arrangement;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    58C(3)   [Acquisition of property]  

    Where:


    (a) at a particular time, the employee or an associate of the employee acquires:


    (i) a prescribed interest in land on which:

    (A) there is a building constituting or containing another dwelling;

    (B) the employee or associate proposes to construct, or complete the construction of, a building constituting or containing another dwelling;

    (ii) a prescribed interest in a stratum unit in relation to another dwelling; or

    (iii) a proprietary right in respect of another dwelling, being a flat or home unit;


    (b) the employee or associate acquires the interest or right solely because the employee is required to change his or her usual place of residence in order to perform the duties of that employment at the employee's new place of employment;


    (c) the employee or associate entered into a contract for the acquisition of the interest or right on a day (the contract day ) within 4 years after the new employment day;


    (ca) if, on the contract day, the employee or associate holds an interest or right in another dwelling in a situation where:


    (i) if that interest or right were sold within 2 years after the new employment day; and

    (ii) if a benefit of a kind referred to in subsection (2) were provided in relation to that interest or right;
    the benefit would be an exempt benefit under subsection (2) - not more than 2 years have elapsed since the new employment day;


    (d) immediately after the completion of the acquisition, the employee occupied the other dwelling, or proposed to occupy the other proposed dwelling, as his or her usual place of residence;


    (e) any of the following benefits is provided in respect of that employment of the employee in, or in respect of, a year of tax:


    (i) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is incidental to the acquisition of that interest or right;

    (ii) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit is incidental to the acquisition of that interest or right;

    (iii) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is in respect of the act of connecting or re-connecting a telephone service to the other dwelling or proposed dwelling;

    (iv) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit is constituted by the act of connecting or re-connecting a telephone service to the other dwelling or proposed dwelling;

    (v) an expense payment benefit where the recipients expenditure is in respect of the act of re-connecting gas or electricity to the other dwelling or proposed dwelling;

    (vi) a residual benefit where the recipients benefit is constituted by the act of re-connecting gas or electricity to the other dwelling or proposed dwelling;


    (f) if subparagraph (e)(iii) or (iv) applies - immediately before the change, a telephone service was provided to the unit of accommodation that was the employee's usual place of residence before the change;


    (g) if subparagraph (e)(i), (iii) or (v) applies - documentary evidence of the recipients expenditure is obtained by the recipient and that documentary evidence, or a copy, is given to the employer before the declaration date; and


    (h) the benefit is not provided under a non-arm's length arrangement;

    the benefit is an exempt benefit in relation to the year of tax.

    58C(4)   [Time and form of election]  

    An election by an employer under subsection (2) in relation to a year of tax:


    (a) shall be made by notice in writing to the Commissioner; and


    (b) shall be lodged with the Commissioner on or before the declaration date.

    58C(5)   [Contract for sale not entered into]